陰廟的神格演變以基隆開基老大公廟為例

Date
2014
Authors
紀春綢
chi chun-chou
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Abstract
中國因戰亂及天災,導致百姓不易謀生,大量福建移民潮湧入台,大都選擇與原鄉較似的環境來定居。移民來台沿襲中原習俗,並以原鄉的技能來開疆闢土,以利謀生。 基隆三面環山一面臨海,則成為福建沿海移民的最佳選擇地。移民因族群、習俗、信仰之不同及謀生問題等,常發生族群衝突,於咸豐三年發生魴頂械鬥,造成百多名無主亡魂。信眾恐其化成為厲鬼,造成地方不寧,一方面為了化解族群對立,築墓葬其遺骸,立廟安置祭祀,使其有所歸,並以各字姓輪當中元普渡主普姓氏,來促進族群和諧,至今原始的墓地地點,則是眾說紛紜。 開基老大公廟是先移民用血淚所砌成的,民眾緬懷先人的追憶處,「老大公」是基隆人對這群漳、泉械鬥成無主孤魂的尊稱,供奉「老大公」的場所正名為「開基隆老大公廟」。基隆人對老大公有崇高的信仰,甚至凌駕於其他的正神。開基老大公廟是一座既神秘又莊嚴神格化廟宇,過去信仰圈曾包含「金、雞、貂、石」四堡,現祇剩雞籠一區。雖然信仰圈的萎縮,仍然遵循古禮隆重科儀來祭祀,經基隆官民共同的努力,開基老大公廟的香火更為鼎盛。
In the past China, people were not easy to live because of the wars and the natural disasters. The inhabitants in Fujian chose to migrate ?to Taiwan where the living environment was similar with their hometown. They tried to keep their traditions up in Taiwan,and used their way to reclaim from the new place just for living. Keelung, surrounded by lots of mountains and oceans, has become the best choice for the coastal Fujian immigrants. The immigrants from the different groups such as Zhangzhou、Quanzhou often fight for social issues, traditions and beliefs. Especially the famous Fangding Battle in 1853, there were more than a hundred of people died. People worried about that the deceased with no families became devils to disturb their peaceful life, and on the other hand, they tried to reconcile the fighting among the immigrants. They established the tombs for placing the deceased and built the temple to worship them. After that, people of the different surnames began to worship the deceased by turns to bring them all into harmony, although no one really knew where the tombs had been. Keelung people called the deceased“Lao da gong”and the temple “lao da gong temple”in Chinese. “Kai ji lao da gong temple” is build by immigrants with blood and tears. Keelung people changed the name into “Kai ji lao da gong temple” with respect for“lao da gong”. Keelung people venerated “Lao da gong” very much even than the other Gods. “Kai ji lao da gong temple” is a mysterious and solemn deification to the yin temple. “Kai ji lao da gong temple” included four areas "Jinshan, Keelung, Sandiaojiao, Shihting" in the past. But now the extant is only one area of Keelung. Even though the followers of “Kai ji lao da gong temple” have reduced, people still follow the ancient ritual to worship “lao da gong”. Through the joint efforts of Keelung officials and the public day by day, “Kai ji lao da gong temple” becomes more prosperous.
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中元普渡, 老大公, 好兄弟, 陰廟的神格演變, 雞籠中元祭, in praise of the Ghost Festival, Lao Da Gong, Ghost, Transform of ghost temple, Ghost Festival in Keelung
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