低價眼動儀硬體與軟體開發 Development of Low Cost Eye Tracking Hardware and Software

Date
2014
Authors
劉鑑儀
Chien-Yi Liu
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Abstract
由於目前市售的眼動儀大部分還市價格偏高,本論文的方向為開發出低價、取樣頻率高、方便攜帶的眼動儀,可以開發出多台眼動儀讓更多人使用。 本論文會介紹眼動儀的發展過程以及眼動實驗常見的參數,各種眼球追蹤 系統,主要分為接觸式和非接觸式,接觸式的方法有眼電圖法、搜尋線圈法, 非接觸式的方法有 Purkinje 影像追蹤法、紅外線眼電圖法、紅外線視訊系統 法,還會介紹著名的眼球追蹤演算法。 最後就是本研究開發出的眼動儀,有固定式螢幕眼動儀、頭動式螢幕眼動 儀、實景眼動儀,固定式螢幕眼動儀需要利用 Chin Rest 固定下巴,頭部不能任意移動,優點是準確度高,取樣頻率最高約為 180Hz;頭動式螢幕眼動儀不需要固定下巴,頭可以稍微的在電腦螢幕前移動,但是準確度較差,取樣頻率約為 75Hz;實景眼動儀以螢幕眼動儀為基礎,外加一個實景攝影機作為錄影之用途,在錄製的螢幕範圍內需要貼 Glyph Code 做定位的功能,使用者可以戴著眼動儀到處觀看,電腦記錄影片及眼動座標、凝視點時間,作為事後分析的參 數,錄製的影片每秒為 30 個畫格。
Due to a high cost of current commercial eye tracking systems, this study aimed to develop an eye tracker system with low-cost, portable, and high sampling frequency for multiplayer usage. This study described the process and common parameters for the eye tracker development and its related eye movement experiments. Current eye-tracking systems are primarily divided into contact methods and non-contact methods. Contact methods include EOG method and search coil method. Non-contact methods include Purkinje image tracking method, infrared EOG, infrared video system law, and the famous eye-tracking algorithm. This study developed a fixed screen eye tracker, a Head-Mounted screen eye tracker, and a Real-Time eye tracker. The fixed screen eye tracker uses a Head-Chin Rest to secure the head position to the same level of a computer monitor and 50cm away from the eyes. The fixed screen eye tracker avoids head movements, therefore, highly increases accuracy of eye movement data. The maximum sampling frequency is also able to reach 180Hz. Though the Head-Mounted screen eye tracker allows minor head movements, poorer data accuracy is a disadvantage and a less sampling frequency up to 75Hz. The Real-Time eye tracker is an extension of screen-based eye trackers. With a video camera attached externally and eye position calibrated with Glyph Code within the video recording area, users can wear the Real-Time eye tracker everywhere. The eye-tracking computer records video with 30 frames per second, and analyses eye movement variables of eye coordinates, gaze fixation, and gaze duration.
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Keywords
眼動儀, 眼球追蹤系統, 人機介面, 紅外線, eye tracker, eye-tracking systems, human-machine interface, infrared
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