臺灣高中歷史教科書爭議議題及教師教學因應之研究

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2017

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本研究旨在探討臺灣高中歷史教科書爭議問題之脈絡(2003-2016年)、高中歷史爭議議題教學之重要性與可行方案、高中歷史教師對教科書爭議議題之認知及其教學因應,藉此探討歷史教科書爭議議題教學之意義及對歷史課程展與教學實踐之啟示。 研究方法上,研究者首先進行前導問卷調查研究,瞭解高中歷史教師認為高中歷史教科書中,比較具有爭議的議題有哪些。接著進入正式研究,首先梳理與分析國內高中歷史教科書爭議問題之發展脈絡,其次運用調查結果,選取填答率較高之9個爭議議題,包括:二二八事件、威權體制、白色恐怖、兩岸的對峙與交流、國共內戰、國民黨政府退守臺灣、兩岸的主權問題、伊斯蘭世界與西方衝突、聖戰等,據以發展訪談題綱,並針對高中歷史教師進行深度訪談,探究教師對歷史教科書相關爭議議題之認知、教學因應,以及影響其教導爭議議題之相關因素。同時輔以文獻探討以瞭解英美等國家對於爭議議題教學之相關研究,藉之思考歷史爭議議題教學之可行方案。 根據本研究之分析,綜結以下四方面之研究結果:第一,在高中歷史課綱與教科書爭議問題焦點方面,課綱層次中的爭議焦點在於歷史主體性之爭、教科書層次中的爭議焦點在於歷史事件陳述與歷史用詞之爭、輿論層次中的爭議焦點為媒體政治意識型態立場之爭。第二,有關歷史爭議議題教學之可行方案方面,可採議題中心取向之教學,但是歷史教師必須充分具備爭議議題內容知識,才可能有效實施爭議教學。第三,在高中歷史教師對教科書爭議議題之認知與教學因應方面,則含括五個面向:(一)歷史爭議議題反映當代史特性、屬於一套論述思維與價值觀、展現歷史之變遷。(二)歷史爭議議題教學主要關注「怎麼教」、但仍以教師中心教學觀居多,教師需具備自我省思能力才能實施爭議教學。(三)對臺灣史與中國史的爭議焦點,認為是「政治」意識型態與「國家」認同之爭。(四)世界史爭議焦點則因為以「歐美觀點」為主,欠缺他者的視角與論述。(五)至於歷史爭議議題之教學因應,教師主要強調應放大時代格局、多元資料與論述併陳、使用受難者或小人物故事、進行人文考察活動等。第四,在影響高中歷史教師教導爭議議題之相關因素方面,則包括對教科書之看法、對教學之考量與所持之教學立場,以及對教學可行性之評估與教學方法之運用等。 最後,研究者在探討歷史教科書爭議議題教學之意義的過程中,獲得如下啟示:研究者認為歷史爭議議題教學將有助於學生理解所處的生活世界,洞察當代爭議之歷史根源,以及幫助學生理解理解歷史作為一個學科之本質。同時,亦可幫助學生投入歷史探究,強化其歷史思考與論證能力,更能發展以學習者為中心之教學環境,促進學生自我導向與負責任學習態度之養成。 根據研究結果,研究者也針對課綱制定、教科書編輯、教學實施,與後續研究等提出相關之建議。
This dissertation aims to examine the controversial issues in high school history textbooks during 2003-2016 in Taiwan; to explore the meaning and implementations of teaching historical controversial issues; and to understand history teachers’ perceptions on teaching controversies. It is hope to capture the significance and implications of teaching controversial issues in history education. In this study a pilot online questionnaire survey was conducted first to identify the most debated controversial issues in high school history textbooks. Then interview questions were developed and used to understand high school teachers’ perceptions on teaching controversial issues. Meanwhile, literatures were reviewed for analyzing the current studies and actual practices of teaching of controversial issues. The findings of this study include four dimensions: Firstly, the major controversy in history curriculum is on the subject position of history; the controversy in history textbooks lies in the content and language use; the controversy in public views results from different political ideologies. Secondly, regarding high school teachers’ perceptions on controversial issues as well as their teaching practice, teachers consider that controversies are shaped by features of the modern history, ideologies and value systems in historical writing and the changing nature of history; in their teaching practice, history teachers are concerned about how to teach, tend to reflect on their teaching practice, and also prefer teacher-centered methods. Thirdly, in their teaching practice, history teachers usually enlarge the scope of a certain historical era with a broader view, present multiple historical sources with diverse perspectives, and design humanities-oriented activities. In the fourth place, history teachers reflected on factors involved with their teaching of controversial issues and suggested possible ways of addressing controversial issues. On one hand, teachers’ conceptions of the content of history textbooks; their concerns and stance in history teaching; their assessments on the implementation approaches. On the other hand, they provide two directions for teaching controversial issues: theme- or issue-based teaching and preparation with enough knowledge about controversial issues in history textbooks. Finally, the implications gained out of the exploration of this study are as follows: teaching controversial issues can help students better understand the world they live and develop critical thinking about controversial issues; can make students rethink the nature of history as an academic discipline and engage them in a deeper historical inquiry; a learner-centered environment can be made possible to develop students’ self-directed and responsible attitude toward learning. Based on the research findings, recommendations for curriculum constructions, textbook compilations, teaching implementations, as well as suggestions for future studies were provided in this study.

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高中歷史教科書, 爭議議題, 爭議議題教學, 高中歷史教師, High school history textbooks, Controversial issues, Teaching controversial issues, High school history teacher

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