基於資訊線索之大學圖書館網站標籤建構研究 A Study of the University Library Website Labels Construction Based on Information Scent

Date
2016
Authors
呂智惠
Lu, Chih-Hwei
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Abstract
網站標籤提供視覺與認知的導引,被視為網站內容與使用者間溝通的重要橋樑,直接影響使用者是否能有效且精準地獲取資訊;同時網站標籤更是一種文字型的資訊線索能協助使用者找到所需的資訊或達成目標任務。本研究探討大學圖書館網站標籤之建構,因網站標籤內容關係到所傳達資訊的完整性與確實性,要如何縮減使用者對於網站標籤產生認知差異,讓網站標籤具備其重要導引或暗示性之資訊線索功能,是本論文研究主要探討之議題。 資訊架構學為本研究的理論基礎,由資訊架構三元素(內容、使用者、情境)組成的網站資訊生態到資訊架構的四個組成系統(組織、標籤、導覽、搜尋),都與本研究的核心議題網站標籤建構息息相關,在資訊架構學中特別強調瞭解使用者需求與使用者行為,因此網站的尋獲度即為重要的評估方法;資訊組織為本研究的方法論基礎,主要從組織分類的概念探討適合網站大量資訊資源組織分類的方法,根據相關研究的分析最後本研究採用卡片分類、層面分類與索引典概念作為網站標籤組織分類建構的方法;資訊線索則為本論文導入網站標籤建構之核心議題,資訊線索為資訊覓食理論的一個重要概念,資訊覓食理論是源自於動物覓食行為的研究,除了重點探討資訊線索之內涵與相關理論研究,為完整建構資訊覓食的理論內容,仍由最原始的動物覓食行為談起,其次說明資訊覓食理論,最後則聚焦探討資訊線索的理論基礎與實證研究。 本論文基於研究目的提出六個研究問題,分別為: 1. 現行全國大學圖書館網站底層標籤內容與標籤命名為何? 2. 不同身分者(專業使用者、圖書館員、一般使用者)對大學圖書館網站底層標籤認知是否有落差?其對底層標籤命名建議為何? 3. 不同身分者(專業使用者、圖書館員、一般使用者)對大學圖書館網站階層標籤建構之內容與方式為何? 4. 不同身分者(專業使用者、圖書館員、一般使用者)所建構之網站底層標籤,以及將上述三種身分綜合認知建構之底層標籤資訊線索對其內部尋獲度是否有差異? 5. 不同身分者(專業使用者、圖書館員、一般使用者)所建構之網站階層標籤,以及將上述三種身分綜合認知建構之階層標籤資訊線索對其內部尋獲度是否有差異? 6. 以不同資訊組織方法所建構之網站標籤,歸類內容與方式為何?其網站標籤建構對內部尋獲度是否有差異? 本論文分三部分進行:研究的第一部分是蒐集整理全國112所大學圖書館網站之底層標籤,歸納分析各校圖書館網站標籤名稱異同與組織方式,接著從專業使用者、圖書館員、一般使用者以及綜合認知資訊線索的角度,蒐集分析對底層標籤的認知異同與命名建議,藉以發掘不同身分者建構底層標籤內容之差異;接下來透過卡片分類法分別產生由專業使用者、圖書館員、一般使用者、及資訊線索四組樹狀架構,探討網站底層標籤與資訊線索對內部尋獲度之效益;研究的第二部分是由專業使用者、圖書館員、一般使用者、以及綜合認知資訊線索的角度進行樹狀架構階層標籤之建構,蒐集不同身分者對階層標籤的認知差異與命名建議;最後透過尋獲度測試、使用者認知標籤合適度評分探討網站階層標籤與資訊線索對內部尋獲度之效益;研究的第三部分是透過層面分類與索引典的資訊組織概念建構大學圖書館網站標籤,最後比較原圖書館網站標籤、使用者新替換之網站標籤、以及層面分類索引典概念建構之網站標籤三組標籤之內部尋獲度效益。 本研究從資訊架構、資訊組織、資訊覓食三方面探討大學圖書館網站標籤之意涵與其建構方法及內容,應用資訊覓食理論中重要的資訊線索概念探討網站標籤之建構。根據研究結果發現,網站標籤作為資訊線索會受使用者認知、網站架構、建構者身分等因素影響其內部尋獲度;同時發現大學圖書館網站標籤建構透過本研究設計之方法包括底層標籤認知調查與建構、階層標籤建構、以及任務導向尋獲度測試與標籤合適度評分等過程,可建構一具備資訊線索高、尋獲度佳之圖書館網站標籤。 針對本論文研究所探討的研究問題與研究目的,提出以下研究結論: 一、112所大學圖書館網站底層標籤命名現況與網站架構深廣度差異大,80%以上之大學圖書館所建置之網站架構是屬尋獲度較佳者。 二、專業使用者、圖書館員、一般使用者對底層標籤認知與建構內容不盡相同,三種身分者所提出底層標籤內容完全不相符者達61.4%;而專業使用者與一般使用者對於底層標籤認知較為相近。 三、專業使用者、圖書館員、一般使用者建構網站階層標籤方式與名稱皆有差異,專業使用者會兼顧圖書資訊專業並從一般使用者角度出發,選用淺顯易懂之用語;圖書館員常以工作經驗中所使用的網頁名稱為命名依據;一般使用者會考量其所熟知的詞彙,較為精簡通俗,亦會擷取原有網站底層標籤名稱中之關鍵字作為命名的依據。 四、綜合認知資訊線索與專業使用者建構之底層標籤對使用者理解網站內容有實質幫助,對內部尋獲度具有點擊網頁過程的輔助作用。 五、綜合認知資訊線索之階層標籤於尋獲度測試結果相較於專業使用者、圖書館員、及一般使用者而言具有顯著差異,其使用者執行任務所花費時間與路徑步數最短少、標籤合適度評分最高分,可有效提升網站內部尋獲度。 六、結合層面分類與索引典概念所建構附註詞彙關聯對照之網站標籤確可提升網站內部尋獲度。
Website labels provide visual and cognitive cues, facilitate the communication of website content to users, and directly influence whether users can efficiently and accurately obtain information. In addition, website labels are text-based information scents that assist users in obtaining required information and achieving their goals. This dissertation explored the adequate construction of university library website labels. Because the content of website labels is related to the completeness and accuracy of information transmission, the methods of reducing the cognitive differences of users regarding website labels and providing suggestive information scents through website labels are crucial research topics. Information architecture is the theoretical basis of the dissertation. The three elements of information architecture (content, user, and context), which form a website information ecology, and the four components of information architecture (organization, label, navigation, and search) are closely related to the construction of website labels. Information architecture emphasizes the importance of understanding user requirements and behavior; thus, the findability of a website is extremely crucial. Information organization is the methodological basis of the dissertation to be employed to explore the concepts of organization and classification of website information. In accordance with related studies, the researcher applied the concepts of card sorting, faceted classification, and thesaurus to organize and classify website labels. Information scent is a crucial consideration for the construction of website labels and an essential concept in information foraging theory, which originated from a study on animal foraging behavior. In this dissertation, the researcher explored the connotation of information scent and related theories and discussed animal foraging behavior to construct a complete information foraging theory. Subsequently, the researcher explained information foraging theory and reviewed information scent and related empirical studies. In this dissertation, the researcher proposed six research questions as follows: 1. What are the content and names of leaf labels for current university library websites in Taiwan? 2. Do professional users, librarians, and general users have different understandings of leaf labels for university library websites? What are the suggestions of professional users, librarians, and general users about the names of leaf labels? 3. How do professional users, librarians, and general users construct node labels for university library website and what is the content of the node labels? 4. Do professional users, librarians, and general users construct website leaf labels differently? Do the information scent of leaf labels constructed by professional users, librarians, or general users influence internal findability differently? 5. Do professional users, librarians, and general users construct website node labels differently? Do the information scent of node labels constructed by professional users, librarians, or general users influence internal findability differently? 6. How are website labels that were constructed through different information organization methods classified? Do website labels constructed according to various methods influence internal findability differently? This dissertation had three parts. In the first part, the researcher collected and organized leaf labels from 112 university library websites and analyzed the names of various university library website labels and the methods for organizing the website labels. Subsequently, from the perspectives of professional users, librarians, general users, and comprehensive cognitive information scent, the researcher analyzed cognitive differences of leaf labels between professional users, librarians, and general users and collected their suggestions about label names to understand how these three types of users construct the content of leaf labels. Next, a card sorting method was appliedto produce four tree structures (i.e., professional users, librarians, general users, and information scent) and to explore the influences of website leaf labels and information scent on internal findability. In the second part, from the perspectives of professional users, librarians, general users, and comprehensive cognitive information scent, we constructed tree-structured node labels, investigated the cognitive differences of node labels between professional users, librarians, and general users, and collected their suggestions about label names. Finally, the researcher tested findability, assessed the suitability of users’ cognitive labels, and explored the influences of website node labels and information scent on internal findability. In the third part, the concepts of faceted classification and a thesaurus were adopted to construct university library website labels and compared the internal findability of three sets of labels (i.e., original library website labels, users’ alternative website labels, and website labels constructed using the concepts of faceted classification and thesaurus). This dissertation explored the connotation of university library website labels and the methods for constructing the website labels from three aspects (i.e., information architecture, information organization, and information foraging). The concept of information scent, which is a crucial concept in information foraging theory, was applied to determine the ideal method of constructing website labels. According to the results, the internal findability of website labels that provide information scent was influenced by user cognition, website architecture, and user identities. In this dissertation, the construction of university library website labels involved the following processes: investigating users’ understanding of leaf labels, constructing leaf labels, constructing node labels, testing task-oriented findability, and assessing label suitability. Through the use of these processes, library website labels with rich information scent and excellent findability were constructed. The conclusions of this dissertation are as follows: 1. Substantial differences in leaf label names and website architecture existed among the 112 university library websites; more than 80% of the studied university libraries had website architecture with excellent findability. 2. Professional users, librarians, and general users understood the leaf labels and constructed the content of the leaf labels differently. Professional users, librarians, and general users had differing opinions about 61.4% of the constructed content of the leaf labels; however, professional and general users had similar understandings of the leaf labels. 3. Professional users, librarians, and general users constructed and named website node labels differently. Professional users used their expertise in library information to construct and name website node labels and often chose terms that were easy to understand from the perspective of general users. Librarians often named website node labels according to their own working experience. General users used terms familiar to them, which were typically simple and common, or used the keywords of the names of the original website leaf labels to construct and name website node labels. 4. Comprehensive cognitive information scent and leaf labels constructed by professional users helped users understand the content of websites, thereby enhancing the internal findability. 5. Compared with the node labels from professional users, librarians, and general users, significant differences in the findability of node labels existed for comprehensive cognitive information scent. The information scent enhanced the internal findability of website when the amount of search time spent by users was the shortest, the number of path steps performed by users was the smallest, and the score for the suitability of labels was the highest. 6. Website labels that contained related words and were constructed according to the concepts of faceted classification and thesaurus effectively enhanced the internal findability of websites.
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Keywords
資訊架構, 網站標籤, 底層標籤, 階層標籤, 資訊線索, 卡片分類, 層面分類, 索引典, 尋獲度, information architecture, website labels, leaf label, node label, information scent, card sorting, faceted classification, thesaurus, findability
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