鐵人三項參與者認真休閒、遊憩專門化、流暢經驗與休閒效益關係之研究

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2023

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臺灣每年舉辦超過20場鐵人三項賽事,知名品牌Challenge Taiwan於2023年的賽事更是破8000人次的參與,鐵人三項除了包含三種不同特性的運動且具階段性的挑戰外,參與者同時需要兼具知識、技術、耐力、毅力與體力、投入長時間、高消費的一項休閒運動,因此參與者投入其中的休閒行為模式歷程值得深入探究。本研究目的:以休閒行為中「認真休閒」、「遊憩專門化」、「流暢經驗」和「休閒效益」四個變項探討其關係,並作為驗證鐵人三項參與者的休閒行為模式。方法:以量化研究方式蒐集有效樣本482份,透過結構方程模式(SEM)分析與探討鐵人三項參與者休閒行為理論間的關係與驗證整體模式的適配性。研究結果:認真休閒正向顯著影響遊憩專門化、流暢經驗和休閒效益;遊憩專門化正向顯著影響流暢經驗與休閒效益;流暢經驗負向顯著影響休閒效益;遊憩專門化部分中介認真休閒與休閒效益;整體休閒行為模式經修正後屬適配。結論:首先參與者認真休閒態度越高,遊憩專門化越高並在休閒效益也越高;其次參與者認真休閒態度越高流暢經驗越高而在休閒效益收穫反降,本研究發現鐵人三項運動的訓練強度、練習時間以及追求成績的壓力,使該項運動不同於其他休閒活動,因此在流暢經驗中產生負向影響休閒效益;整體而言鐵人三項運動具有特殊性,使其在流暢經驗與休閒效益間關係驗證相異於過往研究結果。
Taiwan hosts over 20 triathlon events annually, and the well-known brand Challenge Taiwan saw participation exceeding 8,000 individuals in its 2023 event. The triathlon involves three distinct sports with staged challenges, demanding participants to possess knowledge, skills, endurance, determination, and physical strength. It is a leisure activity that requires long hours and significant investment. Therefore, delving into the leisure behavior patterns of participants in this context is crucial.Research Objective: This study aims to explore the relationships among four variables within the contextof leisure behavior:"serious leisure," "recreation specialization," "flow experience," and "leisure benefits." These variables serve as a means to validate the leisure behavior model of triathlon participants. Methodology: Using a quantitative research approach, 482 valid samples were collected. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to analyze and investigate the relationships among these leisure behavior theory variables for triathlon participants, while also verifying the overall model's fit. Research Findings: Serious leisure significantly and positively influences recreation specialization, flow experience, and leisure benefits. Recreation specialization positively impacts flow experience and leisure benefits. Flow experience has a negative impact on leisure benefits. Recreation specialization partially mediates the relationship between serious leisure and leisure benefits. After adjustments, the overall leisure behavior model demonstrated good fit.Conclusion: Firstly, participants with a stronger inclination towards serious leisure exhibit higher levels of recreation specialization, resulting in greater leisure benefits. Secondly, higher levels of serious leisure involvement lead to increased flow experience, but a decrease in leisure benefit gains. This study reveals that the intensity of training, practice time, and the pressure to achieve in triathlon set it apart from other leisure activities, resulting in a negative impact of flow experience on leisure benefits. Overall, triathlon possesses unique characteristics that differentiate the relationship between flow experience and leisure benefits from previous research findings.

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耐力型運動, 心流, 極限挑戰, 休閒行為模式, Endurance Sports, Flow State, Extreme Challenges, Leisure Behavior Patterns

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