四向度目標導向因果模式驗證之研究-含課室目標結構之影響 The Verification of the Causal Model of 4-Dimentional goal orientation, including moderating effects of classroom goal structure

Abstract
根據成就目標理論的最新發展趨勢,及社會認知論之主張學習動機為個人與教室社會情境交互作用的影響,本研究提出「四向度目標導向因果模式」,驗證模式之潛在自變項與潛在依變項間的因果關係;同時,比較多群組樣本,藉結構參數的顯著差異,分析課室目標結構對因果模式潛在變項間的調節效果。 本研究採問卷調查,以立意叢集抽樣方式,自台北市12個行政區,隨機抽取一到三個公立或私立高中,每個學校隨機抽取一到三班,共得正式有效樣本1,261份。調查工具有自我效能量表、智力增長論量表、四向度目標導向量表、深度語言學習策略量表與英語成就測驗。調查所得資料以描述統計、結構方程模式SEM及多群組分析加以處理。 本研究得到以下結論: 一、本研究所提「四向度目標導向因果模式」,包含預測變項自我效能、智力增長信念,中介變項趨向精熟目標、逃避精熟目標、趨向表現目標、逃避表現目標與深度英語學習策略,及結果變項英語成就測驗。考驗結果發現在整體適配度和模式內在結構適配度兩方面,都顯示本研究所提四向度目標導向因果模式可以用來解釋台北市高中學生的英語學習情形。 二、自我效能影響目標的選擇,對深度英語學習策略與英語成就測驗均有很高的直接和間接效果。 三、 驗證智力增長信念影響趨向精熟目標與逃避精熟目標的選擇。 四、 趨向精熟目標、逃避精熟目標、趨向表現目標、逃避表現目標對深度英語學習策略有不同直接效果,顯示支持Elliot和McGregor(2001)及Pintrich(2000a, 2000c)的四向度目標導向理論,驗證有逃避精熟目標的存在。其中趨向表現目標對深度英語策略的直接效果最高,可能是受試者具有趨向精熟與趨向表現之多重目標的特性。 五、 驗證趨向表現目標和逃避表現目標對英語學習成就有直接影響力。 六、 經多群組樣本比較結果,發現課室目標結構有調節逃避精熟目標、趨向表現目標、逃避表現目標對深度英語學習策略的直接效果(β52、β53、β54)和逃避表現目標對英語成就測驗的直接效果(β64)。就逃避精熟目標對對深度英語學習策略的效果(β52)而言,高精熟/低表現課室優於高表現/低精熟課室;就趨向表現目標和逃避表現目標對深度英語學習策略的直接效果(β53和β54)而言,高精熟/高表現課室優於高表現/低精熟課室;就逃避表現目標導向對英語成就表現的直接效果(β64)而言,高精熟/低表現課室優於高表現/低精熟課室,高精熟/低表現課室亦優於高精熟/高表現課室。這樣的研究結果支持基準目標理論,不支持修正目標理論。 七、 高精熟/高表現課室目標有正向調節深度英語學習策略對英語成就測驗的直接效果,此研究結果支持多重目標理論,並延伸於課室情境。 根據上述研究發現,本研究在理論及實務進行討論,並對教育人員和未來研究方面提出若干具體建議以供參考。
According to new trend of achievement goal theory, and social cognition theories that learning motivation is influenced by interplay between personal and contextual goals, in this dissertation it was proposed a causal model of 4-dimensional goal orientation to explain the causal relationship between latent independent variables and latent dependent variables, meanwhile, by comparison of the significant differences of structural coefficients of multi-groups to analyze moderating effects of the latent variables in the said causal model due to classroom goal structures. For these purposes, this study adopted a questionnaire survey in an intended cluster sampling. The sampling was first selected from twelve districts of Taipei, secondrandomly selected 1-3 public or private senior high schools and then randomly selected 1-3 classes of those schools, total subjects 1261 2nd graders. The instruments employed in this study include self-efficacy inventory, intelligence incremental theory inventory, 4-dimentional goal orientation inventory, deep English learning strategy inventory and English achievement test. The data were analyzed via descriptive statistics, structure equation model (SEM) and multi-sample analysis. The conclusion of this study are as follows- First, the proposed theoretical causal model, including predicting variables- self-efficacy and intelligence incremental belief, mediating variables-4-dimension goal orientations and deep English learning strategies and final dependent variable- English achievement test, was verified fitting the empirically observed data well, either with overall or internal structure fit criteria. This results showed this causal model can explain English learning for the majority of students from Taipei senior high schools. Second, self-efficacy affects the choice of goals, having high direct and indirect effects towords deep English learning strategies and English achievement test. Third, verifying that intelligence incremental belief affects mastery approach goal and mastery avoidance goal. Fourth, 4-dimentional goal orientations have different direct effects towards deep English learning strategies, indicating supporting the theories of 4-dimentional goal orientations that Elliot和McGregor(2001)and Pintrich(2000a, 2000c)proposed and verifying the existence of mastery avoidance goal. Performance approach goal has the most direct effect towards deep English learning strategies. This result is probably due to the subjects of this research holding multiple goals, including mastery approach goal and performance approach goal. Fifth, verifying that performance approach goal and performance avoidance goal have direct effects toward English achievement test. Sixth, after multi-sample analysis, the results indicated that classroom goal structures can moderate the direct effects (β52、β53、β54)of mastery avoidance goal, performance approach goal and performance avoidance goals to deep English learning strategies and the direct effect (β64) of deep English learning strategies to English achievement test. As to the direct effect (β52)of mastery avoidance goal to deep English learning strategies, high mastery/low performance classroom was more beneficial than high performance/low mastery classroom; as to the direct effects(β53、β54) of performance approach goal and performance avoidance goals to deep English learning strategies, high mastery/high performance classroom was more beneficial to than high performance/low mastery classroom; as to the direct effect (β64) of deep English learning strategies to English achievement test, high mastery/low performance classroom was more beneficial than high performance/low mastery classroom and high mastery/high performance classroom. Such results supported Normative Goal Theory but didn’t support Revised Goal Theory. Finally, as to the direct effect (β65) of deep English learning strategies to English achievement test, high mastery/high performance classroom was more beneficial than high mastery/low performance classroom and high performance/low mastery classroom. Such results supported personal multiple goal theory and extended it to classroom context. According to the above results, implications for instruction and future research are discussed.
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Keywords
自我效能信念, 智力增長信念, 四向度目標導向, 深度英語學習策略, 課室目標結構, self-efficacy belief, intelligence incremental belief, 4-dimentional goal orientation, deep English learning strategy, classroom goal structure
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