父母面對青少年子女自我傷害行為之調適歷程之研究 A Study on Adjustment Process of Parents Having Teenage Children with Self-harm Behavior during Adolescence

Date
2015
Authors
李淑美
Lee, Su-Mei
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Abstract
本研究旨在探究父母面對青少年子女自傷行為的調適歷程,研究目的包括:(1)瞭解父母面對青少年子女自我傷害行為的個人調適歷程;(2)瞭解父母面對青少年子女自我傷害行為的調適歷程階段之共同現象;以及(3)暸解父母面對青少年子女自我傷害行為的調適歷程之各個時期重要特色。以立意抽樣方式,邀請三位曾經歷子女在青少年時期從事二次以上自我傷害行為且自我評估為調適良好的父母進行訪談,並運用敘說分析方法進行資料分析。本研究結果分三部分: 一、呈現父母面對青少年子女自我傷害行為的敘說故事:依照時間序描繪每位受訪父母面對青少年子女自我傷害行為的敘說故事。 二、呈現父母面對青少年子女自我傷害行為的調適經驗:找出各個階段的重要事件、伴隨的影響、受訪父母的因應、因應造成的結果,以及其中的調適因子。 三、呈現父母面對青少年子女自我傷害行為的調適經驗之分析,分為二個部分: (一)受訪父母面對青少年子女自我傷害行為的調適歷程階段之共同現象 1.青少年子女自我傷害行為未明階段:困惑、訝異、難以理解,試圖遏止青少年子女令人困惑的行為。 2.青少年子女自我傷害行為確定階段:(1)得知青少年子女自我傷害行為的當下及一段時間內出現複雜情緒;(2)直覺判斷青少年子女自我傷害行為的原因,但理解與接納並不容易;以及(3)制止和忽略因應策略無效,自我傷害行為反覆發生且嚴重程度升高。 3.青少年子女自我傷害行為未完合併發生其他問題行為階段:(1)自我傷害行為、其他問題行為、外在壓力與生活壓力交互作用,帶來沉重壓力與複雜情緒;(2)面對自傷行為與問題行為時,同時得承受來自外在的壓力;(3)過多心力放在自我傷害青少年子女身上,家中非自我傷害子女易受忽略;以及(4)內外在資源與因應策略無法遏止自我傷行為與問題行為,父母陷入前所未有的危機。 4.自傷行為與其他問題行為漸緩階段:(1)樂於接受他人的建議、不斷嘗試與調整問題解決方法;(2)情感支持需求與問題解決需求皆需獲得滿足;(3)先生的包容、配合與合作帶來莫大協助;(4)尋求外在資源解決青少年子女困境並緩和父母心理壓力;(5)身為父母的責任使然,不輕言放棄孩子;(6)調整教養態度與期待,減低青少年子女的壓力與緩和父母本身壓力;(7)看見自己已然盡力並賦予自己正向看法;(8)因應策略與調適因子帶來正向協助,亦引發其他困難;以及(9)自傷行為和問題行為初步改善後,仍是得持續面對與處理後續的起伏狀況。 5.展望現在與未來階段:懷抱著擔憂與希望前行,持續陪伴青少年子女成長。 (二)父母面對青少年子女自我傷害行的調適歷程各個時期之重要特色 1.風暴肆虐時期/負面影響湧現:(1)複雜的情緒;(2)混亂的理解與反應;(3)親職角色實踐困難;(4)家庭系統起變化;以及(5)沉重的外在壓力。 2.風暴消退時期/調適因子現身:(1)覺察壓力困境並積極尋求外在資源或他人建議;(2)尋求能同時提供情感支持與問題解決策略的重要他人;(3)尋求先生的包容、支持與合作;(4)綜合使用問題焦點因應策略與情緒焦點因應策略因應外在壓力;(5)不輕言放棄青少年子女;(6)走進孩子的世界,認識、理解並接納孩子;(7)清楚釐清責任界線並適度承擔教養責任;(8)積極尋求靈性資源並重塑看待世界的信念;(9)學會正向看待自己並欣賞自己;以及(10)積極參與支持團體。 3.彩虹乍現時期/改變向度發生:(1)青少年子女的自我傷害行為與問題行為獲得改善;(2)父母的沉重壓力得以緩和;(3)親子關係有所進步;以及(4)父母的個人信念願意鬆動。 最後,研究者依據研究結果與討論,針對自我傷害青少年子女的父母、專業人士,以及未來研究者提出建議。
The purpose of this study was to explore the adjustment process when parents confronted with the self-harm behavior of their teenage children. The goals of this study were: (1) to understand the individual adjustment process when parents confronted with the self-harm behavior of their teenage children; (2) to understand the common phenomenon during the stages of the adjustment process when parents confronted with the self-harm behavior of their teenage children; and (3) to understand the important characteristics of the three phases of the adjustment process when parents confronted with the self-harm behavior of their teenage children. Three parents whose children had harmed themselves more than twice in their adolescence and the parents who themselves had claimed to have been adjusted well were invited and interviewed by using purposive sampling in this study. The collected data was analyzed by using narrative analysis method. The results and discussions of this study were divided into the following three parts: 1.The story of how each parent confronted with the self-harm behavior of his/her teenage children was described in the time order. 2.During different stages of the adjustment process, the major events, the impacts, the coping strategies, the results of the coping and the adjusting factors were described. 3.The analysis on the adjustment process of parents who confronted with the self-harm behavior of their teenage children was presented in the following parts: I.The common phenomena during the stages of the adjustment process when parents confronted with the self-harm behavior of their teenage children were listed below. i.The stage when the self-harm behavior of their teenage children was unclear: confusion, astonishment, disbelief, and trying to stop the confusing behavior of their teenage children. ii.The stage when the self-harm behavior of their teenage children was clear: (1) The complicated emotional reactions occurred within a period of time and at the moment when the parents learned about the self-harm behavior of their teenage children; (2) Parents tried to make intuitive judgment on the reason of the self-harm behavior of their teenage children, but it was not easy for them to understand and accept; and (3) The coping strategies of stopping and ignoring that parents tried to employ were proved invalid, and the self-harm behavior occurred repeatedly with higher severity. iii.The stage when the self-harm behavior of their teenage children had not stopped, but other problem behavior arose: (1) Self-harm behavior, problem behavior, external pressures together with life pressures brought heavy pressures and complicated emotional reactions; (2) The external pressures had to be taken when parents confronted with self-harm behavior and problem behavior; (3) The children who did not have self-harm behavior tended to be ignored at home when their parents paid too much attention to the teenage children with self-harm behavior; and (4) The fact that self-harm behavior and problem behavior could not be stopped through internal and external resources and coping strategies put the parents in crisis. iv.The stage when the self-harm behavior and other problem behavior started to reduce: (1) Parents were willing to accept others’ suggestions and kept trying and adjusting methods to solve problems: (2) The needs for emotional support and problem solving both had to be satisfied; (3) The forgiveness, coordination and cooperation from the husband brought great assistance; (4)The external resources were sought to solve the predicaments of the teenage children and to relieve the pressure of the parents;(5) The responsibility of a parent made the parents never give up their children; (6) Adjusting instruction attitude could decrease the pressure of the teenage children and relieve the pressure of their parents; (7) It was important to grant the parents themselves a positive attitude after/for recognizing that they have done their best; (8) The coping strategies and adjusting factors not only brought positive assistance, but also generated other problems; and (9) The repeated problems still needed to be handled after the initial improvement of self-harm behavior and other problem behaviors. v.The stage to look at the present and look into the future: Moving forward with worries and hopes, parents should keep accompanying the teenage children to grow up. II.The important characteristics of three phases of the adjustment process when parents confronted with the self-harm behavior of their teenage children were listed below. i.The phase of raging storm/ Negative impacts: (1) Complicated emotional reactions; (2) Confused understanding and reaction; (3) Finding it hard to play the role as a parent; (4) Changes happened in the family system; and (5) Heavy external pressures. ii.The phase of fading storm/ Adjusting factors: (1) Being aware of the pressures they were shouldering and actively seeking external resources or others’ suggestions; (2) Looking for significant other who could provide emotional support and problem-solving strategies; (3) Looking for the forgiveness, support and cooperation of the husband; (4) Coping with the external pressure by synthetically using problem-focused coping strategies and emotion-focused coping strategies; (5) Never giving up on their teenage children; (6) Putting themselves in the shoes of their children and trying to recognize, understand and accept them; (7) Being clear about the responsibilities and moderately shouldering the responsibility of instruction; (8) enthusiastically seeking the spiritual resources and reshaping the belief with which parents treated the world ; (9) Learning to treat oneself positively and to admire oneself ; and (10) Actively joining in supporting groups. iii.The phase of glimmering rainbow/ Modification dimension: (1) The improvement of self-harm behavior and other problem behavior of the teenage children; (2) Relieving of heavy pressures of parents; (3) The improvement of parent-child relationship and (4) The willingness of casting off rigidity in one’s belief At last, based on the findings of the research, the researcher put forward suggestions for the parents who had teenage children with self-harm behavior, the professionals and the researchers to come.
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Keywords
自我傷害, 青少年, 調適歷程, adolescent, adjustment process, self-harm
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