探究板塊構造運動的迷思概念與比較多重類比和反駁陳述對促進板塊構造運動迷思概念改變之成效 The misconceptions of plate tectonics and the comparison of the changing-concept effectiveness between the multiple analogies and the refutational text learning activities

Abstract
本研究探討國三學生有關板塊構造運動的迷思概念,並比較以多重類比與反駁陳述進行的教學活動,對促進板塊構造運動迷思概念改變的成效。研究對象為桃園縣某國中三年級學生共六十九人,是首屆完全使用九年一貫教材的學生。 研究的進行是先偵測學生有關板塊構造運動的迷思概念,做為發展概念改變教材的依據,再進行比較不同概念改變教學的成效。研究的對象分為兩組,一組為多重類比組,另一組為反駁陳述組,分別以多重類比教材與反駁陳述教材進行概念改變活動。分析板塊構造運動概念前後測結果,以及晤談與延宕測驗的結果,比較兩組學生的迷思概念改變之成效。 研究結果顯示,學生有關板塊構造運動的主要迷思概念如下:大陸地殼面積會變小、地震搖晃造成岩層斷裂形成斷層、板塊是地殼和軟流圈組成的地球外殼、海洋地殼面積在變大、板塊會受侵蝕沉積等作用改變大小、海岸線是板塊的交界、板塊擠壓使軟流圈岩漿被擠出形成火山。許多學生因分不清地殼、板塊、陸地彼此間的關係,進而衍伸出一些迷思概念,例如把溫室效應造成海水面上升,解讀成大陸地殼變小或海洋地殼變大;或是倚賴直覺的理解,把地震強大的震動能造成房屋倒塌,當作是岩層被震斷產生斷層的原因。 研究結果也顯示,多重類比和反駁陳述兩組在教學活動後,板塊構造運動概念後測得分明顯提升,但比較兩組得分的進步程度,則未達顯著差異。比較兩組的延宕測驗,也得到和上述類似的結果──未達顯著差異。兩組大部分的學生都對概念改變教學活動持相當正面的反應,在多重類比教材使用的類比物中,以巧克力板比喻火山、拼圖和碎報紙比喻大陸漂移、藤條折斷比喻地震,較受歡迎或印象深刻;反駁陳述教材的各部分,學生印象較深的說明有宇宙膨脹(練習教材)、板塊構造、火山形成等。 本研究亦提供了幾點未來研究上、教材設計上與教學上的建議,希望對教師與教材撰寫者有所幫助。
This research identified 9th grade students’ misconceptions of plate tectonics and compared the concept-changed effectiveness of learning activities that used multiple analogies and refutational text respectively. The samples of this study were 69 9th grade students at one school, Taoyuan. Under the reform of curriculum and teaching materials, they were the first year’s graduates. The first step of the research was detecting students’ misconceptions of plate tectonics, as foundations to develop learning materials for changing misconceptions. The second step was comparing the changing-concept effects of the two different learning activities. The subjects were divided into two equal groups approximately; one was named “multiple analogies” group and the other “refutational text” group. Analyzing the data collected from the pretest, interview, posttest, and delayed posttest, it revealed what the misconceptions students held and how the students changed their misconceptions and what difference of changing-concept effects between the two groups was. The result revealed that the students held many misconceptions; the prevalent misconceptions were as follow: the area of continental crust shrinking, earthquake fracturing the strata, tectonic plates comprising crust and asthenosphere, the area of oceanic crust expanding, tectonic plates changing size by erosion or deposit, coastline equaling the edge of tectonic plates, volcanoes spouting out lava from asthenosphere by tectonic plates pushing. Many of the students vaguely considered that crust, tectonic plates, and land are the same things so those misconceptions are formed in the students’ mind. Some examples were as follow: The students considered that sea level rising, by the green house effect, have made the area of continental crust smaller or the area of oceanic crust bigger. Intuitively, the students thought that the earthquake’s vibration fractured strata and formed faults. The result also showed that the scores on the posttest, testing the two groups after the learning activities, were obviously higher than the scores on the pretest but there was no significant difference between the two groups’ increases. Similarly, there was no significant difference between the scores of the two groups’ delay test. Most students of the two groups showed a very positive attitude to the learning activities for conceptual change. Some of the analogs used in the multiple analogies learning activity were impressive, for example: an analogy between the floating chocolate plates and the volcano, an analogy between piecing together a jigsaw or the torn scraps of paper and the continental drift, an analogy between a rattan breaking and an earthquake. The impressive parts of refutational text for the students were the universe expanding (the exercise material), plate tectonics, and the formation of volcanoes. In this study, implications and suggestions for science curriculum, teaching materials, science instruction, and future research topics were also discussed, hoping these would be helpful for teachers and developers of the curriculum.
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Keywords
迷思概念, 多重類比, 反駁陳述, 概念改變, misconception, multiple analogies, refutational text, conceptual change
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