晚明善書及其教化作用研究

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2019

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本研究以晚明時期的善書為對象,探究其思想內涵及所形成的教化作用。 晚明時期,政治愈發腐敗,經濟發展面臨崩潰,政治與經濟環境的變動,也影響了整體社會發展。社會環境的動盪不安,使得人心無所安置,此時善書提供了一個安置的方向,同時也希望能夠維持社會秩序,使得社會回到過去的安穩。而晚明的書籍出版事業,不論在技術、行銷等方面,都有長足的發展。使得善書的傳播速度比以往更加快速且方便。 本研究選取了《明心寶鑑》與 《迪吉錄功過格》作為善書個案分析的對象,並輔以其他類型的善書,探析其思想內涵及了解善書如何被推行。 晚明時期的善書透過宣揚因果報應、積功改過的機制及三教思想的融入,向世人傳達關於倫理、處世原則及眾生平等等的道德規範,促使人們時時刻刻都能積極向善,甚至進一步將善內化,達到善與人同的境界。 此時的士人則希望藉由善書能夠改變社會,讓社會恢復秩序,重建傳統儒家的道德理想藍圖,而共同擔起了社會教化的責任;同時,善書也逐漸成為啟蒙教材之一,並有助於提高一般民眾的識字率。而晚明時期的善書出版與流通更直接影響了清代善書的發展。 最後,以現今的角度評論晚明善書的流行與發展,了解在今日道德教育及社會教育中的可能應用之處及啟示。即便隨著時空環境的改變,善書已經退出了多數人的視野,然而其所蘊含的思想內涵,仍與我們的生活結合,並影響著人們的行為。
The main purposes of this study are to explore the books of persuading beneficence and their function of socialization in the Late-Ming Dynasty. In the Late-Ming Dynasty, governments’ corruption and economic collapse have influenced the development of the society. People are disquieted because of society turmoil. At this time, the books of persuading beneficence not only reassured the public but also keep society in order. And the publishing industry in this time which had the remarkable progress had made the books of persuading beneficence published and circulated more convenient and faster. Beng sim po cam, Di Ji Lu and other types of the books of persuading beneficence as cases will be analyzed their connotation and function of socialization. The books of persuading beneficence in the Late-Ming Dynasty had used the moral function from karma, merit ledger and the theory of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoist, to propagate the moral ideas and doctrines. These moral functions would urge people to perform acts of kindness whenever they were. The intellectuals in the Late-Ming Dynasty hoped to improve the social order by the books of persuading beneficence, and reconstruct the moral ideal framework from Confucianism, so they have chosen to assume the responsibility of social education. Besides, those books not only had been used as teaching materials for early childhood education and increased popular literacy, but also their publication and circulation influenced those developments in Qing Dynasty. In conclusion, some comments were made about the influence of books of persuading beneficence in the Late-Ming Dynasty, and found out some application and implications for the moral education and social education today, even time and environment changing rapidly.

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善書, 晚明, 社會教化, 道德教育, the books of persuading beneficence, the Late-Ming Dynasty, socialization, moral education

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