靈氣和音樂介入對助人工作者負向情緒調節與專業枯竭之成效

Date
2022-03-??
Authors
劉庭瑜
劉奕蘭
Ting-Yu Liu, Yih-Lan Liu
Journal Title
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Publisher
國立臺灣師範大學教育心理學系
Department of Educational Psychology, NTNU
Abstract
專業枯竭是普遍存在的社會現象,其影響深遠和廣泛。研究方向從探討原因朝向因應策略發展,並指出個體主動採取因應策略將可預防和改善枯竭情形。雖然國外普遍認為靈氣可作為因應策略,且能改善個體健康,但國內相關的研究卻寥寥無幾。有鑑於此,本研究旨在探討遠距離靈氣介入對助人者專業枯竭與負向情緒調節的成效。本研究的實驗設計採單盲和隨機分組,共招募30名新竹市大專校院的助人者為研究對象,分為實驗組和控制組,實驗組的介入策略為遠距離靈氣和音樂,控制組為音樂,每次30分鐘,每週一次,共八週,並在每次介入前後填寫專業枯竭量表與負向情緒調節預期量表。經介入後採24名有效樣本進行資料分析,每組12名。本研究發現如下:(1)實驗組接受八週介入後,其整體專業枯竭、整體負向情緒調節預期及相關分向度均獲得顯著改善;控制組則無;(2)實驗組相較控制組在整體專業枯竭與負向情緒調節預期的兩個分向度之成效為佳,且達顯著差異。但專業枯竭的三個分向度與整體負向情緒調節預期則無,而實驗組在每週的改善幅度均較控制組佳。本研究結論為遠距離靈氣為降低助人者專業枯竭風險的有效策略,並能提升調適負向情緒的自信程度。根據研究結果提出靈氣的應用價值與對未來研究的建議。
Burnout is a universal social phenomenon and has been paid attention to by researchers, office workers, and the general public. Its influence is far-reaching and extensive. A survey shows that up to 90% of office workers have experienced burnout in Taiwan, and the helpers are one of the high-risk groups. Research in burnout has developed from exploring the causes of burnout to individuals' coping strategies. When individuals can cope with stress, burnout will be reduced. Although the research of burnout has been widely discussed abroad, there are only a few studies of intervention strategies. One of the critical symptoms of burnout is emotional exhaustion. Previous studies found that negative mood regulation expectancies can predict individuals' experience of burnout due to work stress and maladaptation. The theory of resource conservation suggests that when individuals lost resources at work and out of balance, the stress will cause burnout. Negative mood regulation expectancies are one kind of resource that has a connection with burnout. However, studies concerning the relationship between burnout and negative mood regulation expectancies are few, and therefore this relationship cannot be confirmed.With the improvement of the social economy, individuals were willing to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Reiki is one kind of the CAM that belongs to the biofield therapies in energy healing therapies, which can affect the surrounding body energy field. Reiki charges, adjusts, and rebalances the body energy field to create the best state for the body's natural healing system. Previous studies found that Reiki decreases depression and anxiety, reduces burnout, and improves the quality of cancer patients' lives. Although the efficacy of Reiki has been widely discussed abroad, there are only a few studies in Taiwan, not even mentioning distance Reiki, which is another form of Reiki. To reduce the counter-transference of touching from Reiki, distance Reiki is a better choice. On the other hand, negative mood regulation expectancies are one of the factors that predict the incidence of burnout. This study aimed to investigate the effects of distance Reiki on the burnout and negative mood regulation expectancies of the helpers.This study recruited 30 helping workers at university in the northern cities between 2018 and 2019 and conducted distance Reiki and musical interventions by adopting a single-blind, randomized experimental design. Participants were divided into experimental groups and control groups. The experimental group accepted distance Reiki and musical interventions, and the control group accepted musical interventions. Participants accepted thirty minutes intervention each time, once a week, over eight weeks. Before and after the intervention, participants filled in the NMRS (Negative Mood Regulation Scale) and MBI scale (Maslach Burnout Inventory. Only twenty-four participants' data (12 in each intervention group) were included in the analysis. The MBI scale was developed to assess burnout and includes three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. The high scores indicate a more severe burnout. NMRS was a commonly used scale to measure individual beliefs regarding what they can do to make themselves feel better when they are in a bad mood. IT includes two different dimensions: emotional response adjustment and cognitive-behavioral adjustment.Before conducting interventions, the Researcher explained the research purpose, conditions, intervention process, intervention strategies, potential risks, privacy, and right of participants. Participants' informed consent forms were obtained after confirming that they understood all of the content. All of the research data were processed to ensure the privacy of the participants. The intervention procedure was as follows: (1) measured one-minute average decibels with the noise APP to confirm the environment was suitable for the research before the intervention; (2) confirmed that participants did not have physical discomfort before filled the scale; (3) after filling out the scales, guide them to lie down on the floor with a soft mattress; (4) played music and guided relaxing steps, then research stayed away three meters and behind the participants to make sure participants cannot see research; (5) after finishing the intervention, waked up participants gently with sound; and filled out the scale again. After the participants had finished the interventions, researchers emailed and informed participants in which intervention group they were.The main findings of the study were as follows: (1) after receiving distance Reiki and musical intervention, the experimental group displayed significant differences between pre-test and post-test in helpers' burnout and its sub-dimensions, but the control group did not show these significance; (2) after receiving distance Reiki and musical intervention, the experimental group showed significant differences between pre-test and post-test in helpers' negative mood expectancies and its sub-dimensions, but the control group did not show these significance; (3) the experimental group was better than the control group in reducing burnout and its subdimensions scores weekly and achieved significant differences between pre-and post-tests, but this significance of pre- and post-tests did not appear in its' sub-dimensions; (4) the experimental group' was better than the control group in improving negative mood regulation expectancies and achieved significant differences between pre-and post-tests, but the improving effect did not appear in overall negative mood regulation expectancies; (5) the experimental group was better than the control group in improving negative mood regulation expectancies and its sub-dimensions weekly. The conclusions of this study are that distance Reiki could improve individuals' confidence to adjust to negative emotions, and distance Reiki is also one of the effective strategies to reduce helpers' burnout risk.This study is the first article about distance Reiki intervention in Taiwan and designs standardized processes to improve the research quality. Based on the findings of this study, we provide the application value of distance Reiki and propose suggestions for future research. The research limitations and suggestions of the study are as follows: (1) more than half of the participants have master's and doctor's degrees, and their education level is higher than the general public. Then, the results cannot be generalized to other helpers; (2) as the participants agreed to participate in the study, they accepted pretest and were immediately and randomly assigned to the experimental group or the control group. Therefore, some participants were receiving the intervention while the recruiting was ongoing. It was difficult to match the basic characteristics of the participants between the experimental group and the control group; (3) the experimental group accepted distance Reiki and musical interventions, and the improving effect of burnout and negative mood regulation expectancies cannot be inferred to the group when accepting distance Reiki only. It is recommended to include a distance group as a control group in the future; (4) if readers are interested in taking Reiki intervention or participate in Reiki workshop, they need to be familiar with this procedure addressed in the current study. Moreover, they need to be aware that the capability to channel Reiki has to be enlightened through Reiki attunement by Reiki Master; (5) Reiki workshop provides Reiki implementation steps, Reiki attunement, related precautions, and course manuals. However, these workshops are not free for participation; (6) the study showed that distance Reiki reduces burnout and improves negative mood regulation expectancies. Helpers can use distance Reiki at work, such as sending Reiki to depressed or anxious students or cases to improve their physical health and emotion; (7) it is suggested that research should be encouraged to cooperate with Reiki-related organizations, such as Taiwan Reiki Culture Association and Taiwan Reiki Promotion Association, to promote scientific research.
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