職業棒球經營績效評估-以統一獅隊為例 Study of Professional Baseball Operation Effects

Abstract
職業運動組織既然是一個自負盈虧的策略事業單位,與一般企業的經營目標相同就是追求良好的營運績效,因此本身的績效評估標準也必須完善。過去評論台灣職業棒球經營討論中,經營績效的問題往往被忽略。 本論文採個案研究方式,以平衡計分卡觀念,探討統一獅隊績效評估制度,另依訪談與文獻分析彙總衡量指標,以深入訪談及問卷調查,萃取出主管之角度,可實際應用於個案組織績效衡量之指標,供個案職業運動組織與其他類似組織日後績效衡量之參考。並以此研究結果與La New熊隊做比較。 研究結果顯示,個案組織現有績效評估制度,係存在於各項策略與工作目標中,其主要目的即為績效提升,建議個案組織可將現有之績效指標依照策略、願景,重新建構平衡計分卡觀念下之績效衡量指標。 在問卷調查主管之重要性分析結果之關鍵指標分別為『成本管控規劃』、『創造營運利潤』、『回饋基金』、『顧客滿意度』、『提高服務品質』、『運動休閒生活營造』、『健全的組織』、『專業化人力管理』、『環境品質維護』、『資訊科技化程度』、『人員培訓計劃』、『市場競爭能力』、『研究發展成效』等十三個關鍵指標,其分布在四個構面之中,可見主管對於平衡計分卡四個構面的指標都各有重視的部分。 在AHP層級分析法分析結果顯示,四大構面中學者專家對於個案組織經營時,應重視的構面首推內部程序構面,依次為學習與成長構面、財務構面、顧客構面。各構面的領先關鍵指標及領先行動指標(構面-關鍵指標-行動指標),分別為: 1.內部程序構面-資訊科技化程度-業務資訊化開發比例。 2.學習與成長構面-研究發展成效-體育學術研究比例。 3.財務構面-回饋基金-運動獎助學金設置。 4.顧客構面-運動生活營造-運動賽事主場比例。 研究結果顯示,在個案組織與La New熊隊的比較中發現,財務構面部份,希望能夠獨立自主,不在仰賴母公司支援;顧客構面部份,希望能提供球迷一個舒適滿意的場地與環境,獅隊礙於主場設施老舊,比較無法提高顧客的滿意程度;在內部程序部份,尤與兩支球隊的企業文化不同,組織架構也不同,無法比較;在學習與成長的部份,由於兩支球隊目前呈現虧損的狀態,對於公司或員工的學習與成長,比較無法投入心力去經營。 對於個案組織及後續研究的建議如下: (一)個案應重視組織的內部程序構面的組織再造與重整。 (二)應更加重視學習與成長策略。 (三)財務面則應重視回饋基金、成本管控規劃機制。 (四)建立正式績效營運的管理制度 (五)建立職業運動組織專屬指標的設計 (六)設計發展職業運動組織專屬指標,並能確實執行於個案組織。
Study of Professional Baseball Operation Effects Graduate student:Tse-feng Chou January,2007 Advisor:Wen-tseng, Chu Abstract In pursuit of the best profit ,enterprise should have a good performance of evaluation system, the key point of which is on it's evaluative indicator, such as using finance indicator to evaluate the performance. The comments on Taiwan’s professional baseball in the past often failed to measure the performance of itself. The ball teams often think that the sponsor or the advertisement is the most important factor to them, but ignore many other important factors. like the satisfying level of the customers and employee. This thesis is written based on the single case research, using the Balanced Scorecard point method. To analyze the single case of current Performance Evaluation System of Professional Sports Organization, we use available records to analyze the Sports organization’s evaluation standard. Through survey and interview of staff and management levels, their point of view can be taken into account to use in the actual case of Performance Evaluation System standard, and to be used as a reference for future achievement evaluation system of UNI-Lion or other Sports organizations. The results will than be compared with La New Bears. Results show that current achievement evaluation of UNI-Lion is based on the strategies and standard operation procedure, the main purpose of the system is to improve the performance. It is recommended that the administration organization build up Balanced Scorecard point system according to their strategies and future hopes to set up a standard. The important analysis resulting in the Balanced Scorecard System shows that the top 13 indicators chosen are the “cost effect control”、”build up operation profit”、”feedback fund”、 “client satisfaction”、”service quality”、”build up recreation and sports existence”、”organization coordinate ability”、”professional human resources management”、”the environment preserve”、”build-up management information system”、”The staff developing& training project”、”marketing competition ability”、”advanced research ”。These top 13 indexes are divided into 4 different sections, showing that the administrator considered different important indexes in different sections. Results of Analytic Hierarchy Process show that different perspectives of administrator and academics results in different opinion in the chosen of the responsibility section survey. The first important perspective is ”Internal Business Perspective”,the 2nd important perspective is ”Innovation and Learning Perspective”,the 3rd important perspective is “Financial Perspective”,the 4th important perspective is ”Customer Perspective”。 Every perspective clincher and action ahead indicator is respectively as follows: 1.”Internal Business Perspective”-“information technology”-“advance of marketing information” 2.”Innovation and Learning Perspective”-“development of research effect”-“percentage of physical education research” 3.”Financial Perspective”-“feedback fund”-“sports scholarship” 4.”Customer Perspective”-“build up recreation and sports existence”-“percentage of the home game” The following is the detection of final companies between the Lion and the Bear compare. On financial perspective, both companies hope they can absolutely itself. On the customer perspective, both companies hope they can provide fans with a good environment, but the Lion’s home stadium can’t afford a good one. On the internal business perspective, both companies’ cultures are different, we can’t compare. On the innovation and learning perspective, maybe both teams are still in deficit, so they are not able to more money on the development of the company and its staff. The suggestions for these organizations : 1.Attach importance to the internal business perspective and renew the organizations. 2.Attach importance to the strategy of innovation and learning perspective. 3.Attach importance to the feedback fund and cost effect control in the finance perspective. 4.To set management system up for the operation effect. 5.To set up professional baseball team appropriative indicators. 6.To set up and design professional baseball team appropriative indicators, and execute on the case study organization.
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Keywords
平衡計分卡, 職業棒球, 經營績效管理, 層級分析法, Balanced Scorecard, Professional Baseball, Management of Operation Effect, Analytic Hierarchy Process Method
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