都市邊區的農業發展-都市化衝擊下八里文旦柚產業的轉型

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2016

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八里地區在過去並非臺灣主要文旦柚產區,但於民國100年後,栽植面積急起直追位居全臺第三大產地。在臺灣大規模栽植文旦柚的產地中,八里地區距離北臺市場最近,都市擴張使八里地區的土地利用產生激烈的競爭,種種不利文旦產業的環境要素進逼,本研究探討地方嘗試突破現有框架,以文旦柚產業作為因應都市環境的農業發展策略。 八里地區平地農業在都市化衝擊下被迫逐漸退出海拔60公尺以下區域;60公尺以上丘陵地農業則因位處保護區範圍得以維持較大規模的發展。戰後至今農作物的遞嬗反映環境及時代脈絡的轉變,從水稻逐漸轉為綠竹筍再進而選擇文旦作為重點培育項目。著重文旦鮮果市場經營的農友以市場需求為導向,試圖建立「好」的品質標準,帶動八里在地文旦鮮果的再商品化;另有一批農友結合自身專長及園區地點、位置將文旦產業轉型為二、三級產業,多角化經營型態分散純農事之風險,進一步提高農產品的附加價值。雖八里地區文旦柚產業起步較晚,地方嘗試以符號行銷創造八里的壟斷地租,以在地的動態調適找到都市農業的生存之道。
In the past, Pali district was not a main pomelo producing area in Taiwan. However, since the 100th year of the Republic Era, the planting area has quickly risen in the rank and become the third main pomelo producing area in Taiwan. Among the large-scale pomelo planting areas in Taiwan, Pali district is the closest to the Taipei market, which causes its superiority in agricultural development due to the short distance to the market. Nevertheless, it may also result in the inferiority in agricultural development with the pressure of urbanization. Despite urban expansion as well as a variety of unfavorable environmental factors, the pomelo production is still very successful. This research aims to break through the viewpoint that urban expansion is against agricultural development, and examine what strategies are used for pomelo production as agricultural development in Pali, urban fringe area, so as to cope with urbanization. Under the impact of the urbanization, agriculture in Pali district gradually withdraws from the plain to hills above an altitude of 60 meters. Since an altitude above 60 meters is the protection area, there is a larger-scale development in agriculture. Besides, different crops, from rice to green bamboo and now pomelos, also reflect the change of environment and time. Nowadays, some farmers focus on market demand, contributing to having high quality of their pomelos and further commercializing them in Pali. Simultaneously, other farmers devote to turning pomelo agriculture to the secondary or tertiary industry and they also combine their professionals and location with pomelo production, trying to reduce the risk of pure farming by different management and further enhance the added value of agricultural products. Although the pomelo agriculture started late in Pali district, locals not only try to create monopoly rents by symbolic marketing but also find the survival way of the urban agriculture with local dynamic adjustment.

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八里, 文旦柚產業, 都市農業, 壟斷地租, Bali, Pomelo Industry, Urban Agriculture, Monopoly Rents

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