城鄉高齡者認知環境、身體活動與久坐行為之研究 The association of perceived environmental and physical activity, sedentary behavior in urban and rural older adults

Date
2015
Authors
黃弘欽
Huang, Hung-Chin
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Abstract
目的:身體活動量不足與久坐行為是影響高齡著健康的危險因子,而城鄉差距被視為是影響個體行為發展的主要原因,因此本研究旨在探討城市與鄉村地區高齡者社會人口因素、認知環境因素與休閒時間身體活動、久坐行為之關係。方法:針對臺北市及嘉縣65歲以上高齡者進行分層隨機抽樣,抽取1068人進行電話訪問調查 (有效樣本為983人) ,資料蒐集包括社會人口因素、認知環境因素、休閒時間身體活動及久坐行為等,並以描述性統計、無母數檢定及二元邏輯斯迴歸進行統計分析。結果:一、臺北市高齡者休閒時間身體活動量較高;二、臺北市年紀較大及女性高齡族群較容易身體活動量不足;三、嘉義縣有全職工作及肥胖高齡族群較容易身體活動量不足;四、年紀較輕、低教育程度、獨居及肥胖高齡族群較容易從事久坐行為;五、嘉義縣低教育程度高齡族群較容易從事久坐行為;六、臺北市住家附近適合騎腳踏車的場所、良好社會環境、環境美觀及夜晚治安不安全等認知環境因素與身體活動量不足達顯著相關;七、嘉義縣住家附近設有人行道、良好社會環境、環境美觀及免費休閒場所等認知環境因素與身體活動量不足達顯著相關;八、臺北市所有認知環境因素與久坐行為未達顯著相關;九、嘉義縣住家附近有免費休閒場所及家中擁有機動車等認知環境因素與久坐行為達顯著相關。結論:未來針對全臺灣縣市提升高齡者休閒時間身體活動量的方案,應先針對鄉村地區的高齡者,進一步改善城市及鄉村地區之高齡者久坐問題,且建議各縣市政府及相關單位設計改變行為策略及方案時,應先針對目標族群進行篩選,並加強環境因素對於行為改變的相關研究。
Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior are the risk factor affecting the health of older adults. To increase the understanding of the high-risk groups that engage in physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, this study investigated the relationship between socio-demographic factors, environmental factors and physical activity, sedentary time in older Taiwanese men and women who living in Taipei City or Chia-Yi County. The present study using stratified random sampling, we recruited 1,068 older adults aged 65 years and above to answer a questionnaire (valid sample: 983). The collected data comprised socio-demographic factors, environmental factors, average daily sedentary time, and amount of leisure time physical activity. The data were subsequently analyzed using descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test and binary logistic regression. According to the results, we found the: a) A higher proportion of physical activity were observed in Taipei City older adults; b) The factors older and female were significantly correlated with physical inactivity among Taipei City older adults; c) The factors full-job status and obesity were significantly correlated with physical inactivity among Chia-Yi County older adults; d) The factors younger, low education level, live alone and obesity were significantly correlated with sedentary time among Taipei City older adults; e) The older adults who had low education level was significantly correlated with sedentary time among Chia-Yi County older adults; f) The environmental factors bicycle path, seeing people being active, aesthetics and night safety were significantly correlated with physical inactivity among Taipei City older adults; g) The environmental factors such as sidewalk, seeing people being active, aesthetics and free leisure facilities were significantly correlated with physical inactivity among Chia-Yi County older adults; h) All of the environmental factors were not significantly correlated with sedentary time; i) The environmental factors such as free leisure facilities and owned motorized vehicles were significantly correlated with sedentary time among Chia-Yi County older adults. Future interventions and policies for reducing physical inactivity and sedentary time of older adults should initially focus on socio-demographic and environmental factors.
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休閒時間身體活動, 久坐時間, 老年人, 認知環境, physical activity, sedentary time, older adult, environmental factor
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