課程推廣的理論建構之探究:以閱讀為例 The constructive theorization of curriculum dissemination: taking reading as example

Date
2017
Authors
侯ㄧ欣
Hou, Yi-Hsin
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Abstract
課程推廣研究肇始於1960年代美國大規模介入中小學的課程革新活動,故課程推廣被界定為政府機關對學校教師的介入行動。由於推廣往往伴隨革新之後出現,且需探討那些持續發展一段時間的具體案例,較能追溯其歷史軌跡;因此本研究以閱讀為例,採實證主義的立場,將實施、擴散和制度化理論整合為模式架構,以結構方程模式證澄理論模式與案例樣本資料的配適性。確證推廣理論的模式架構後,再以典型相關和路徑分析,探討理論構念間的相互關係,有助於釐清推廣過程各因素間的錯綜變化(如:擴散角色影響制度化模式),並憑藉迴歸和階層線性模式,分析個人及學校背景變項如何對推廣產生影響(如:校風開放傾向價值型塑的制度化形成)。最後,輔助質性探究的結果補充說明理論模式的脈絡性效果(如:榮譽雖有助於制度化形成,卻可能是走入另一修正的開始)。從模式架構的配適度檢驗、釐清推廣過程各因素間的相互關係、探討背景脈絡的影響,進而回應建構課程推廣理論的研究目的。 本研究以國小教師為研究對象,抽樣範圍取自北部地區、中部地區、南部地區、東部及離島地區,並以都會化程度69.4%為依據,分層抽樣都會區和非都會區學校。採問卷調查和訪問調查作為蒐集資料的方法,經量化和質性技術的分析結果,對照研究目的後,大致歸納結論如下: 一、課程推廣具實施、擴散和制度化等階段,每個階段皆有其相應的任務。實施階段審慎評估忠實觀或調適觀的脈絡性需求後,可搭配自上而下或由下而上的實施方式組合;擴散階段則因應個別的特性與需求(如:創新者具組織因素的採用考量),而使人各安其位、各司其職,充分運用人際網絡將革新導向特定意圖;制度化階段則在人群達致一定默契的基礎下,透過制度模式的運作,使組織成員皆能達到既定推廣目標的行為表現。 二、在推廣的各個階段採行任何決定或行動,皆會牽一髮而動全身。在階段內「實施觀點」與「實施方式」、「擴散角色」與「採用依據」、「制度化模式」與「制度化形成」具正相關;跨階段則「實施方式」與「擴散角色」、「擴散角色」與「制度化模式」、「實施方式」與「制度化模式」具正相關,可見各階段任何決定或行動彼此交互影響。 三、受到個人或學校背景、閱讀發展經驗的脈絡性影響,而使得課程推廣更朝向多元化的進行。不只是各校及個人在實施、擴散和制度化的情形有所差異,中央到學校的行政運作層級之職掌分工逐漸明顯,推廣雖涉「異中求同」卻也兼及「同中求異」的多元發展。
The academic study of curriculum dissemination began from U.S. actively promoting curriculum innovation to primary and high school during 1960 A.D., so that curriculum dissemination just be meant for administrative intervention to school teacher. Because the dissemination almost follow after the innovation, in order to tracing the historical background for investigating that continuing case, the study takes the viewpoint of Positivism to reading curriculum by the way of structural equation model (SEM) for implementation, diffusion and institutionalization. As the data gathering from the sample case of reading curriculum just fit in SEM, then the constructs of SEM could be further analyzed by canonical correlation and path analysis to confirming the interrelationships among the changing process of dissemination, just like that the roles of dissemination affect the mechanism of institutionalization. Analyzing the variables of the individual and school background by stepwise multiple regression and hierarchical linear models (HLM) to realize the contextual effect, such as the open climate of school leading to the moral values into institutionalization, and corresponding to the qualitative inquiry, such as the honor doing favor to institutionalization but causing the curriculum revision, above all we could distinguish the interrelationships between the constructs of SEM and contextual effect, finally reach the goal of constructive theorization of curriculum dissemination. The study took primary school teacher who came from the north area, the mddle area, the south area, the east and outlying islands of Taiwan as sample. Stratified sampling between metropolitan area and non-metropolitan area, according to the metropolis rate of 69.4%. Data gathering by the way of interview and questionnaire survey, then analyzing outcome from quantitative or qualitative technique could reach the following conclusions corresponding to research goal. First, the process of dissemination might include the phases of implementation, diffusion and institutionalization, which phases has each tasks to overcome. Considering the contextual need of fidelity perspective or mutual adaptation at the phases of implementation, the model of implementation could be ‘top-down’ or ‘button-up’ with corresponding. At the phases of diffusion, if the innovation within interpersonal network could be lead to the desired goal and made each other do his duties, the administrative intervention should response to individual characteristics and needs, such as the innovator usually taking organizational surroundings into account. At the phases of institutionalization, if the individuals within group reach in sync mind, the individuals within group would perform well for the desired goal of dissemination under the models of institutionalization. Second, any administrative intervention would lead something changing at each phases of the process of dissemination. Such as the viewpoints of implementation versus the models of implementation, the roles of diffusion versus the considerations of adoption, the models of institutionalization versus the performance of institutionalization all having positive correlation in common at the same phases. Either the models of implementation versus the roles of diffusion, the roles of diffusion versus the models of institutionalization, the models of implementation versus the models of institutionalization having positive correlation across other phases. So that either administrative intervention could make some influence with each other at the process of dissemination. Third, the curriculum dissemination works for diversified development because the contextual effect of individual, school background or the developing experiences of reading curriculum. Not only the individuals and schools disseminate differently in the aspects of implementation, diffusion and institutionalization, but also from Ministry of Education to schools the administrative job assignment apparently dividing the work. Curriculum dissemination not only let the disagreement becoming consensus but intends to make consensus be pluralistic.
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Keywords
課程推廣, 課程理論, 擴散, 課程革新, 課程實施, 閱讀課程, curriculum dissemination, curriculum theory, diffusion, curriculum innovation, curriculum implementation, reading curriculum
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