社會資本與公民參與之研究 A Study of Social Capital and Civic Engagement

Date
2017
Authors
張玉璽
Chang, Yu-Hsi
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Abstract
近年來社會體制不斷的改革進步,一般民眾對於公民概念之認識也大幅度的提升,公民參與已然成為改革社會之動力。民眾透過公民參與的過程,可擴大自身人際網絡及提升對於社會之信任,進而產生豐厚的社會資本,社會資本已逐漸被認為是影響民主參與、治安、健康狀態及社經實力等的重要推動力量,對個人有利,也對整體社會產生重要的影響,公民參與與社會資本已被認為是建立公民社會不可或缺的要素。 本研究探討台灣地區居民的社會資本及公民參與之存量,亦探討社會資本及公民參與兩者在理論及實務上的脈絡關係。本研究透過人際網絡、規範及信任來評量受訪者社會資本之高低,而公民參與則是以政治參與、慈善參與、社區參與來作為測量指標。本研究使用次級資料之量化分析,研究樣本是取自於『中央研究院調查研究專題中心學術調查研究資料庫』的實證研究資料『2014 年台灣社會變遷基本調查計畫2012 第六期第三次調查計畫執行報告』,受訪者共有2134位。 本研究發現性別、種族及城鄉差距等背景變項對於社會資本及公民參與無顯著影響,而年齡、信仰、教育程度、收入、職業、及居住區域等背景變項對於社會之本及公民參與有顯著影響。透過典型相關及迴歸分析結果呈現出社會資本與公民參與兩個概念是正相關,社會資本對於公民參與有較高的解釋及預測力。台灣地區居民有很高社會資本存量,受訪者在人際網絡的廣度及深度表現上都相當優異,在信任的表現上,呈現出差序格局的信任方式,對於陌生人是傾向於不信任的態度。 整體而言,台灣是並不是一個具有高度信任的社會,特別是對於政府及非營利組織的領導者的信任,但鄰里間依然會遵循互惠規範的行事原則,且大部分民眾具有豐富的人際網絡。而在公民參與上,人民對於公共事務的參與是相當貧乏,特別是在政治參與及慈善參與上的表現上,這現象反映出台灣是個低度公民參與的社會。因為政府效能不足,這點反映在人民對於政府信任低落上,人民對政府失去信心,以至於人民對於參與公共事務表現出冷漠的態度。
In recent years, civic engagement has become the driving force of social reform because of continuous reform and progress in the social system, and the general public awareness of the concept by citizens, which is also significant. Through the process of citizen participation, people can expand their interpersonal network, enhance trust in the society, and then generate rich social capital. Social capital has gradually become regarded as an important driving force influencing democratic participation, public security, health status, and social and economic strength. It is beneficial to the individual and has an important influence on the whole society. Citizen participation and social capital have been considered as indispensable elements in the establishment of civil society. This study explores social capital and citizens’ participation in the Taiwan region, and explores the relationship between social capital and citizen participation in both theory and practice. Social networks, norms, and trust are used to measure the social capital of respondents. Citizen participation is measured by political participation, community participation, and participation in charitable activities. In this study, we undertook a quantitative analysis of secondary data. The study sample was obtained from the the 2012 Taiwan Social Change Survey (Round 6, Year 3): Social Stratification.. A total of 2,134 respondents were surveyed. This study found that background variables such as gender, race and urban-rural disparity had no significant effect on social capital and citizen participation, while age, beliefs, education, income, occupation, position, and residential area were the main factors affecting social capital and citizen participation. The correlation between social capital and citizen participation was positively correlated in the correlation and regression analysis. Taiwan residents have a high social capital stock, the respondents in the breadth and depth of the performance of the network are very good, the performance of trust, showing the pattern of the trust of the difference in order to strangers tend to distrust the attitude. Overall, Taiwan is not a highly trusting society, especially with regard to government and non-profit organizations, the leadership who should be trusted, but neighborhoods still follow the principles of reciprocity norms, and most people belong to a rich network of people they can trust. The participation of people in public affairs, and especially in politics and charities, is very poor which reflects the fact that Taiwan is a low-level citizen participation society. This is due to the inefficiency of the government, which is reflected in people's loss of confidence in the government, and the indifference of people to their own participation in public affairs.
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Keywords
社會資本, 人際網絡, 規範, 信任, 公民參與, 政治參與, 社區參與, 慈善參與, Social Capital, Social Network, Norm, Trust, Civic Engagement, Community Participation, Political Participation, Charity Participation
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