哈伯瑪斯溝通行動理論在國民中學衝突管理應用之研究

Date
2009
Authors
鄭杏玲
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Abstract
  本研究主要的目的是探究國民中學教育人員應用溝通行動理論於學校衝突管理的可行性。   本研究所的研究方法採取訪談法及問卷調查法。訪談法分別訪談偏遠學校及一般地區學校共四所,計訪談校長、主任、組長及老師等九位國民中學教育人員;問卷調查法則以全國722所國民中學為主要調查對象,採分層立意取樣抽樣調查各縣市合計100所國民中學。   本研究結論如下: 一、國民中學教育人員衝突原因多數是由於溝通行動不夠落實所致。 二、國民中學教育人員衝突歷程中可以藉由溝通行動的介入,以避免衝突演變成負面影響。 三、國民中學教育人員衝突結果藉由溝通行動介入較能轉變成正面影響結果。 四、國民中學教育人員衝突的最佳管理策略是落實溝通行動於日常互動之中。 五、溝通行動的應用包含採取樂於溝通的態度,同時致力於溝通內容的真實、合理、令人理解,並且以真誠、得體、互相尊重的方式與他人溝通,且能夠藉由與他人的互動及溝通中,反省並修正自己的意識型態。 六、國民中學校長重視溝通行動的領導風格較能有助於學校理想溝通情境的營造。 七、國民中學教育人員的溝通能力若能有效提升,將有助於作好衝突管理。 八、國民中學教育人員普遍認同應用溝通行動有助於作好衝突管理。 九、不同背景的國民中學教育人員對於衝突管理、溝通行動及衝突情境的看法有所差異。   根據研究結論,提出以下建議: 一、 對於教育行政機關的建議:1. 將溝通行動素養納入校長培訓課程。2. 辦理教師溝通行動素養培育研習。3. 強化國民中學教育人員校園衝突管理知能。4. 加強鄉鎮及年輕教育人員人際互動減少衝突發生。 二、 對於學校教育人員的建議:1. 採取樂於溝通的態度與人互動以建立友善的人際關係。2. 以開放的心態面對不同意見的表達。3. 應學習說明、傾聽及論辯的能力。4. 致力於溝通內容的真實、合理、令人理解才能有效溝通。5. 以真誠、得體、互相尊重的方式與他人互動、溝通。6. 致力於營造理想的溝通情境,使民主機制更為健全。7. 適時檢視及修正自己的意識型態,以避免為偏見所主導。 三、 對未來研究的建議:1. 蒐集更多衝突情境作為探討依據。2. 以校長為主要研究對象以探討校長溝通行動素養對學校的影響。
The main purpose of this research is to explore the feasibility of applying Habermas’s communication action theory to conflict management in junior high school. This research methodically adopts in-depth interviews and survey questionnaires. Interview objects contains 9 educators in 4 schools, includes a remote area school and three general area schools. Survey questionnaires master groups contains 722 junior high schools in Taiwan, and samples 100 schools by stratified purposive sampling. And concludes the following findings: 1. Conflict often causes by people not applying communication action in daily interaction in junior high school. 2. Educators in junior high school apply communication action during conflict process can prevent it to become dysfunctional effect. 3. Educators in junior apply communication action to conflict management can change it to be functional effect. 4. The best strategy of conflict management for educators in junior high school is to apply communication action in daily interaction. 5. Applying communication action includes having attitude of happy to communicate with others, and using true, reasonable, and comprehensible communication content, and communicating in sincere, appropriate, and respect manner, and reflecting and revising ideology during interaction and communication process. 6. If the principal of the junior high school have a good view about communication action , then the communication environment of the school will become better. 7. If the ability of applying communication action of the educators be improved, then their ability of conflict management will be improved. 8. Most educators in junior high school agree that if they apply communication action better then they will manage conflict better. 9. The opinion about conflict management, communication action , and conflict condition vary significantly by individual educator in the .junior high school. Finally this research raises several suggestions to three groups: 1. Suggestions to government departments in charge of education affairs: (1) Involve communication action courses during junior high school principal’s cultivating process. (2) Implement teacher’s in-service training about applying communication action. (3) Improve the knowledge of conflict management of educators in junior high school. (4) Improve the interaction of educators in town and young educators to prevent the happening of conflict. 2. Suggestions to educators in junior high school: (1) Use positive attitude of communication to interact with others, and make friendly interpersonal relations with others. (2) Open your mind to listen different opinions. (3) Learn how to listen, descript, and discourse. (4) Use true, reasonable, comprehensible communication content, so can have communication validity. (5) Communicate in sincere, appropriate, and respect manner with others. (6) Create prefect communication environment as best as you can, then the democracy mechanism will consolidate. (7) Reflect and revise ideology in appropriate time, so can avoid to be lead by bias. 3. Suggestions to those who are interested in further studies in the related field: (1) Explore more cases of conflict conditions. (2) Research how far a principal affect the communication environment in a junior high school.
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衝突管理, 溝通行動, 哈伯瑪斯, communication action, conflict management, Habermas
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