英語老師在以省思為基礎的電腦輔助語言教學工作坊中之專業成長研究 A Study on English Teachers' Professional Development in a Reflection-Based Computer Assisted Language Learning Workshop

Jun-jie Jack Tseng
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過去很多研究都著重在教師對一般語言教學的認知,比較少注意到他們學習電腦來教學這方面的認知。因此,本研究希望能夠對這方面的研究文獻有所貢獻,其目的在於探索語言教師在參加以省思為基礎的電腦輔助語言教學(Computer Assisted Language Learning; CALL)教師成長計畫之後,他們的省思力、信念,以及科技教學學科知識(Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge)的發展。 有四位在職英語老師最後成為本研究的研究對象,因為他們成功地完成了為期十二週的電腦輔助語言教學(CALL)教師成長工作坊,在這期間他們必須每週透過討論區來省思回應一個資訊融入教學的問題,以及在工作坊結束前寫出一份教案。研究者收集所有十二週的回應省思文章,根據修訂過的Bloom的分類等級表(the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy scale),來評量老師們的省思力發展;並且以這些回應省思,加上訪談記錄,利用質性資料分析的方式來找出老師們對CALL的信念;最後分析老師們的教案以及刺激回憶法的文字稿來統整出他們的科技教學學科知識。 研究結果顯示,四位老師們的省思力大致上都有所提升。在工作坊初期,老師們只能夠瞭解科技在教學上的意義,以及應用科技於特定的教學情境中;但是在工作坊後期,老師們則都進步到能夠分析一些CALL的實務,進而以理論概念來評鑑這些實務。 在教師信念方面,發現四位老師對CALL持有一些共通與正面的信念:CALL可以協助老師激發學生的學習動機以及發展學生的自主學習;現成的CALL資源可以讓學生有機會接觸到真實與可理解的語言輸入,以及使用目標語;數位教材編輯軟體可以幫助老師們(一)更有效率地管理傳統的視聽教材、(二)強化語言輸入、(三)提供學生練習目標語的機會。除此之外,四位老師們都有一個共同的信念,亦即老師可以在CALL的環境下扮演各式角色:課前的CALL教材設計者與評鑑者,課堂中主導大部分教學活動的舞台主角,課後將自己的角色邊緣化,由電腦(指網路和家教式的CALL光碟軟體)扮演知識提供者的角色。對比之下,他們相信學生可以是主動決定者,自主選取學習資源;相信學生可以是一位自我學習的評鑑者。最後,所有四位老師都認為,有限的硬體設備以及製作與維護數位教材所耗費的龐大時間會阻礙CALL實務的發展。 至於四位老師的科技教學學科知識,雖然還是有一些不同,不過大致上他們都瞭解如何融入資訊在英語教學情境中。他們知道電腦,尤其是PowerPoint、Hot Potatoes和網路(用來搜尋補充教材),可以有效地呈現文法與字彙;他們也知道,這樣的教學組合,可以運用一些教學策略來強化:引出(elicitation)、概念處理(concept processing)、遊戲(game)、家教式活動(tutorial)、反覆練習(drill-and-practice)等。最後,老師們的科技教學學科知識也包含對教學實務上情境束縛的瞭解,認為學生接觸電腦受到侷限,以及老師們自己低落的資訊能力,都會對實務教學有所影響。 本研究所發展的CALL教師成長計畫似乎對四位老師的專業成長有所貢獻,分別是強化批判思考科技與教學的關連、發展正面的CALL信念、以及擴增科技融入教學的知識。基於以上研究發現,本研究對師資培育提出一些教學啟示以供參考,而且也對未來的研究提出建議,特別是研究設計與工作坊設計。
Much research has been conducted on teachers' cognitions in the context of general language teaching, but relatively few studies have centered on the cognitions involved in teachers' learning to teach language with the computer. The present study thus hoped to bridge a gap of existing research on language teachers' cognitions. Specifically, this study aimed to inquire into the development of English teachers' reflectivity, beliefs about Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) of integrating technology into teaching in a reflection-based CALL teacher development (CALLTD) program. Successfully completing a 12-week CALLTD workshop in which they were required to submit weekly reflection entries and a CALL lesson plan, four in-service English teachers constituted the ultimate subjects of the study. All of their reflection entries were evaluated for their critical levels according to the revised Bloom's Taxonomy scale. Together with individual interview transcriptions, those reflection entries were also qualitatively analyzed to identify their beliefs about CALL. The lesson plans and individual stimulated recall transcriptions were analyzed to identify their TPCK. It was found that the four teachers' reflectivity was overall on the increase. At the beginning of the workshop, their reflections were mostly rated as the levels of understanding pedagogical significance associated with technology and applying technologies to particular contexts. Toward the end of the workshop, their reflections were promoted to the levels of viewing CALL practices with analytical thoughts and evaluating them with theoretical concepts. The four teachers were also found to hold some common and positive beliefs about CALL: CALL could help teachers motivate students and develop their autonomy in learning; ready-made CALL resources could expose students to authentic and comprehensible linguistic input and provide them with opportunities to use the target language; authoring programs could facilitate teachers to (1) manage traditional audio/video teaching materials more efficiently, (2) enhance linguistic input, and (3) offer students opportunities to practice the target language. In addition, the teachers had a common belief that teachers played varied roles in CALL environments: a designer and an evaluator of CALL materials before class, an actor in charge of most events and activities during class, and a peripheral role after class when the computer (i.e. the web and the tutor-based CALL CD-ROM titles) becomes a knowledge provider. In contrast, students were believed to play the roles of active decision makers in selecting learning resources and self-evaluators of their learning. Finally, the four teachers believed that CALL practices might be discouraged by limited access to hardware facilities and a need to invest a large amount of time in authoring and maintaining CALL materials. With regard to the four teachers' TPCK, they revealed a general, though somewhat different, understanding of technology integration in EFL teaching contexts. They understood that the computer, particularly PowerPoint, Hot Potatoes, and the Internet (used to search for supplementary learning materials), could effectively present grammar and vocabulary. To their knowledge, the combination of the target content and technologies could be supported by such instructional strategies as elicitation, concept processing, game, tutorial, and drill-and-practice. Lastly, the teachers' TPCK also entailed an understanding of contextual constraints on CALL practices, that is, students' limited access to computers and the teachers’ restricted information competency. The CALLTD program developed in this study seemed to have contributed to the four teachers' professional development, in terms of enhancing critical thinking on the connection between technology and pedagogy, developing positive beliefs about CALL, and expanding knowledge of integrating technology into teaching. Based on the findings of this study, implications for teacher education are offered. Suggestions are also made for future studies with regard to design of research and setting up of a workshop.
以省思為基礎的教師成長計畫, 教師成長, 資訊融入英語教學, 省思實務, 省思發展, 教師信念, 科技教學學科知識, reflection-based teacher development program, teacher development, the integration of the computer into English teaching, reflective practice, reflectivity development, teachers' beliefs, technological pedagogical content knowledge