戶外冒險教育課程自我覺察歷程與內涵之研究──以國立臺灣師範大學野外獨處課程為例

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2019

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本研究目的旨在探討戶外冒險教育課程參與者的自我覺察歷程、面向與內容,以及所帶來的後續影響。採用質性研究取向,以立意取樣邀請六名參與過開設於碩博班之「獨處與反思研究」課程的同學作為訪談對象,經文本分析與討論得到結論如下: 一、野外獨處課程自我覺察的歷程可以建構在Kolb經驗學習圈與Greenaway動態回顧循環的架構下;當中引發覺察的因素有:自由情境、時間完整、無事可做、自然景物的隱喻、大自然的包容、壓力情境、天氣狀態與其變化、靈性經驗、自我對話與書寫、指導員或同儕的引導與回饋,以及作業要求,共十一項。 二、野外獨處課程中的自我覺察可分為:獨處課程當下的自我覺察、連結著當下與自己平時狀態的覺察、對個人樣貌的覺察、死亡恐懼與對其他終極關懷的思考、視角與焦距的變化,共五個面向。各面向下自我覺察的內容,則包括:我的害怕與不自在(對夜晚、對單獨一個人、對野外環境、對團體分享的負向感知)、對於掌控的需要、容忍度擴張;閒不下來、說出來就好了、自己好像不是那麼真實;那個小孩怎麼了、我對自己有點陌生、我跟我的家人好像、我也不喜歡的我,以及我不是自己以為的那個我,共十一項。 三、野外獨處課程中自我覺察之後的影響為:讓參與者對野外獨處有新的想像,並更有意識地認識自己、接納自己、表達自己(真實的感受與需要、與朋友情感面的連結、肯定自己在工作上的表達、展現自己風格)、照顧自己、為自己做決定,課程經驗本身也成為記號去提醒參與者這段時間的覺察,甚至造成工作信念的轉變。
The purpose of this research was to explore the processing, dimension and content, and the post effect of the participants’ self-awareness experience in the outdoor adventure education program. The researcher used the qualitative research approach and interviewed six students attending the course of “Wilderness Solo Program” at the Department of Civic Education and Leadership, National Taiwan Normal University. The research concludes the followings: 1. The processing of self-awareness experience could be structured on the Kolb's experiential learning cycle and the active reviewing cycle by Roger Greenaway. The researcher identified 11 factors causing self-awareness. These factors are freedom in isolated environment, enough time, nothing to do, metaphor in nature, the tolerance of nature and “being” there, the stressful environment, the weather and its change, the spiritual experience, self-talk and writing, the guide or feedback from peers and instructors, and the tasks from instructors. 2. There are five dimension of self-awareness in the wilderness solo program including current self-awareness during the program, the self-awareness that connect the current time and before, the self-awareness for one’s truly inner situation, the fear for death and the thinking for the other ultimate concerns, and the change of perspective. The researcher also identified eleven contents under these five dimensions, inclduding (1). the fear and uneasiness (for the night, for being alone, for in the wildness environment, for sharing in a group), (2).the need to control the situation, (3).the expansion of tolerance, (4).can't relax, (5).speak out and it will be fine, (6).I don’t being real enough, (7).the kids in our mind,(8).the unfamiliar with self, (9).the similarity between me and my family, (10).I’m who I don't like either, and (11). I am not the one I thought I thought. 3. The post effect of personal self-awareness of the wilderness solo program include the participants would have new images for the wilderness solo program, and they can understand themselves more consciously, and also accept themselves, express themselves (including the real feeling and need, connecting with friends in emotional level, approbating their communication at work, and showing their style), take care of themselves, make the decision for themselves. Moreover, the whole experience of the wilderness solo program is also the sign to remind the participants about the self-awareness during the program. Some said it is a shift in their work beliefs.

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戶外冒險教育, 野外獨處, 獨處, 自我覺察, outdoor adventure education, wilderness solo, solitude, self-awareness

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