再寫排灣族口傳詩歌 Rewriting Paiwan Oral Poetry

Date
2020
Authors
曾有欽
Tseng, Yu-Chin
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Abstract
本論文標題「再寫」,再寫有兩個解釋:第一是「族語書寫策略」,第二是「文本形式化」。本文試圖依循「田野調查,族語書寫,文學轉化,文本典藏」等四段過程做研究歷程,賦予台灣原住民文學研究新典範,也欲為台灣文學注入新活水。 排灣族在文字化以前,就已經由「符號、圖騰、儀式、口傳」等生活表述,發展族群的文學形式。2005年12月15日經台灣官方制定,並正式頒布了「台灣原住民族語灣族書寫系統」。今日台灣原住民族已進入文字書寫時代,本文以口傳詩歌文字化為核心價值;如何以族語書寫作為策略與目的,是本研究的重要精神內涵。 本文採集多達60首以上的排灣族口傳詩歌,針對排灣文化性格及本研究動機,筆者將田野第一手資料,分類為男女情歌、勇士詩歌、貴族詩歌、常民歌謠等四大類。且經統整做文學賞析,發現排灣族口傳詩歌,內涵有譬喻之美、修辭之美、古典之美、聲韻之美、文趣之美等文學美感。另有襯詞、虛辭配合詩詞穿填,以收韻律與留白之詩歌美感。而「情歌的」、「歌詩的」、「貴族的」、「集體性」、「儀式性」」等,乃排灣族口傳詩歌之文學本質。 口傳詩歌文本典型化,並作跨界典藏,是本文一大創建。更值得一提是,本文發現排灣族口傳詩詞,以「二句14音節」為詩詞典型;主要詩詞有二句,每一句是7個音節,二句共14個音節;這是本研究重大發現,祖先的文學素養真是叫人驚艷!
Within the topic of this paper, the “rewriting” should be interpreted in two ways: the first pertains to “aboriginal language writing strategies” and the second to their “textual formalization”. The paper follows a four-stage processes that includes field investigation, writing in indigenous languages, literary transformation and textual archiving in an attempt to add a new paradigm to research directed at Taiwan’s indigenous peoples’ literature and inject new life into the field of literature in Taiwan. With respect to text formation, in the past, the Paiwan tribe used symbols, totems, rituals and oral transmission as methods of representation in the development of aboriginal language based literature. On December 15th, 2005 Taiwan officially drew up and formally promulgated the “Taiwan Indigenous Language Paiwan People’s Writing System”. Thus, indigenous people in Taiwan have already entered into an era of textual writing. One of the main purposes of this paper is focused on creating written texts from oral traditions, poems and songs while addressing strategies and objectives for compositions in tribal languages. Over sixty pages of orally transmitted Paiwan poetry were compiled. Focusing on Paiwan cultural character as a motivation of this study, the researcher conducted field-work to collect the materials first-hand and then classified the contents into the four categories of “love songs for men and women”, “poems of warriors”, “poems of nobles”, and “folk songs”. Through literary appreciation, the literary beauty of the Paiwan poems was revealed in their metaphors, rhetoric, classical character, rhyme, and their interesting nature. Non-lexical vocables and empty words are also used within the works to close rhymes and fill in blank spaces while adding to the beauty of the poems and the literary essence of the Paiwan Tribe’s orally transmitted loves songs, poetic songs, poems for nobles, communal poems and ritual poems. The main accomplishments of this paper include the typification and cross-domain archiving of orally transmitted texts. It is also worth mentioning that the paper reveals that within the Paiwan Tribe’s orally transmitted poetry, a two line by 14 syllable form is followed. This means that the poems are primarily constructed of two lines, each line containing 7 syllables; the two lines together contain a total of 14 syllables. This interesting discovery demonstrates the amazing literary ability of the Paiwan tribal ancestors.
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口傳詩歌, 族語書寫, 文學轉化, 文本典藏, orally transmitted poems, aboriginal written language, literary transformation, ltext archiving
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