北海岸褒歌採集與分析

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2012

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本論文旨在採集北海岸四鄉鎮──萬里、金山、石門、三芝之褒歌,進而瞭解歌謠誕生的社會土壤,並分析其歌詞如何將具體的生活器物、動植物等庶民辭彙轉換為表達情感的修辭隱喻。 第一章為緒論,說明本論文的研究方法以田野調查為主,歌仔冊不列入討論;研究對象,以採錄到三十位北海岸褒歌吟唱者作分析。第二章討論褒歌與茶文化的關係,由製茶產業興起,到褒歌與採茶活動:茶寮、茶籗、沓米、茶園、茶山地形、採茶時機、奉茶習俗等。第三章以褒歌吟唱者為主題,分析吟唱者的特質、知識來源與社會地位。第四章描寫褒歌美醜的隱喻結構,探討歌詞中借用自然界中的植物、動物、器物做「來源域」,影射男、女的美、醜或抽象情感的「目標域」。第五章敘述褒歌與情慾,由約會號頭、性暗示、欺騙感情、到移情別戀;末項的「反梟報應:落油鼎」,是吟唱者借陰間地府的各種刑罰,導引庶民道德觀與恪守感情忠誠的罰則。 北海岸褒歌可唸,可唱,題材廣泛,是動人的歌謠組曲,也是耆老的智慧結晶。本論文配合歌詞實物,計有100餘張圖。總結提到期供北海岸推展城鄉風貌,營造新北市發展一區一特色,以提昇民間文學藝文特色。
The North Coast has great landscapes, great water sources and great tea-making teachers on tour, which stimulates the popularity of popular songs (po-koa)in the 50s. The purpose of this study is to gather popular songs from four north coastal towns: Wanli, Jinshan, Shiman and Sanzhi, and to analyze the metaphors of their lyrics The first chapter includes the introduction and research methods, which are mainly based on field research and excludes songbooks. The research subjects are 30 banter song singers from the north coast. The second chapter explores the relationship between banter songs and tea culture, including discussions on the rise of tea-making industry, tea-gathering activities and banter songs. The third chapter focuses on banter songs and singers, and analyzes the characteristics, knowledge backgrounds and social statuses of the singers. The forth chapter discusses the metaphorical structures of banters songs on beauty and ugliness, and explores the “source range” of metaphors in nature, such as plants, animals and tools, to insinuate the “target range” of physical appearance of both man and woman. The fifth chapter focuses on the relationship between banter songs and passion: from the beginning of a date, sexual suggestions, deception, and to the change of love. The last song’s “the retribution of fickleness is to fall into a pot of boiling oil” is the singer’s use of punishment in hell to preach morality and ethics of law to the common public. North coastal banter songs can be recited or sung, and includes a wide range of themes. They are not only enchanting medleys of songs but also embodiments of wisdoms from elders. This study incorporates literature with more than 100 pictures of actual physical objects, taken actual locations in the north coast. The conclusion provides suggestions that the Ministry of the Interior should promote developments of styles and features in cities and towns in North coast, and that New Taipei City government should develop one feature per zone to help characteristics of folk arts and literatures.

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北海岸, 褒歌, 吟唱者, 隱喻, North coast, (po-koa) song, singer, metaphor

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