葛琳(Maxine Greene)存在現象學及其在覺醒教育之應用--以 "愛的理論與實踐"一門課為例

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2009

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葛琳(Maxine Greene)存在現象學及其在覺醒教育之應用 —以「愛的理論與實踐」一門課為例 【摘要】 本論文旨在探究美國教育哲學家葛琳(Maxine Greene, 1917- )存在現象學內涵,及其在覺醒教育之應用。作者首先從「存在」、「知識」、「自由」、「互為主體性」、「形上學」等五項議題,說明存在現象學的內涵特質,此大體沿用美國存在現象學者盧朋與柯倫(Luijpen& Koren, 1969)的架構。其次探討葛琳存在現象學的內涵、特色,與其在教育哲學與課程理論之主張。再其次,說明葛琳的「覺醒」(conscientizaçāo, conscientization)教育,並為其「覺醒教育」整理出更明確而具體之步驟。 作者試圖融會中西教育思想,推衍《大學》「格致誠正修齊治平」的教育次第,並將葛琳之覺醒教育分為「感識知悟反行明」七個步驟,使其教育理論更能為國人所理解與實踐。然後,作者針對葛琳學說之重要概念作綜合評論,旨在從不同文化及觀點來作比較及詮釋,以凸顯葛琳學說之特色及限制。最後,作者以個人所開設「愛的理論與實踐」一門課為例,探討覺醒教育在國內推行的可能途徑。 主要論述重點如下: 一、 探討葛琳存在現象學之內涵。 二、 闡述葛琳教育哲學與課程理論。 三、 探討葛琳的覺醒教育特色及其限制。 四、 探究葛琳覺醒教育對我國教育之啟示。 五、 探討我國實施覺醒教育之可能途徑-以一門課為例。 本研究發現: 一、 葛琳存在現象學以生命意義之「覺醒」為教育核心,藉由文學與藝術課程來啟發學生的「道德想像力」與「社會想像力」,期望達成個人與社會之自由,對當代課程改革極有參考價值。 二、 葛琳「覺醒」教育可依「感受」、「意識」、「知道」、「醒悟」、「反思」、「行動」、「明覺」之步驟實施,與儒家「良知學」可謂殊途而同歸。 三、 以「覺醒」為核心的課程,應避免「囤積式教育」。帶領學生在服務中學習,有助於創造有意義的「經驗」。
A Research on Maxine Greene’s Existential Phenomenology and its Application to Conscientization —The Case of “Theory and Practice of Love” Abstract This dissertation examines existential phenomenology by Maxine Greene and illustrates applications of her educational philosophy to conscientization. Following Luijpen and Koren (1969), I explain existential phenomenology using “existence”, “knowledge”, “freedom”, “intersubjectivity”, and “metaphysical”. Next I examine the characteristics of Greene's existential phenomenology, her ideas on educational philosophy, and the theory and praxis of curriculum. Then I explicate conscientization by Greene and illustrate applications of her theory. In this research I combine Chinese and Western educational philosophies. Following the eight steps of education in Da-Hsueh (《大學》), I categorize her philosophy into seven steps: perception, consciousness, awareness, awakeness, reflection, action, and wide-awakeness, to enhance general understanding of Greene’s concepts. Next I provide a comprehensive examination of Greene’s key concepts, using views from different cultures to highlight the characteristics as well as limitations of her philosophy. Finally, I provide educational policy recommendations using my course “Theory and Practice of Love” at National Chiao-Tung University as an example. This research finds: 1. “conscientization” is the core of Greene’s existential phenomenology. She believes in using aesthetical education to motivate ethical imagination and social imagination, to free an individual and the society. This approach could be a valuable addition to the ongoing curriculum revolution. 2. One can apply Greene’s “conscientization” following the steps: perception, consciousness, awareness, awakeness, reflection, action, and wide-awakeness, which resembles the strategies of instruction in Confucianism. 3. It is important not to spoon-feed students, as the curriculum need to focus on “awakening” students. Encouraging students to learn from community service can create much more meaningful experience.

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葛琳, 存在現象學, 覺醒, 全面覺醒, 囤積式教育, Maxine Greene, existential phenomenology, conscientization, wide-awakeness, banking education

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