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英語聽力對台灣學生而言,是一項非常艱鉅的工作。不僅因為他們是外語學習者,更因聽力的過程緊湊而不能暫停,卻缺乏實境聽力訓練、足夠的字彙量、多媒體的善用,所以遭遇很多問題。隨著電腦科技的進步,虛擬實境提供了學習者許多不同於以往的學習經驗和機會,但是關於行動虛擬實境對於英語為第二外語學習者的聽力理解和字彙學習之相關研究仍然有限,需要更多實證研究來驗證行動虛擬實境對學習英語的效益。本論文包括兩項研究:第一項研究旨在探討行動虛擬實境對英語學習者字彙學習與聽力理解之成效,第二項研究旨在探討同儕共學對英語學習者在行動虛擬實境中字彙學習與聽力理解的學習成效與影響。此外,以上二項研究皆同時檢視英語學習者的學習動機。 第一項研究受試者為49名國中七年級學生,依班級隨機分配為實驗組(虛擬實境組)和控制組(影片組)。實驗組藉由頭帶式顯示器讓受試者身歷其境和虛擬人物互動;對照組使用電腦觀看影片。第二項研究受試者為22名國中七年級學生,依英語程度配對分組。各組其中一位使用頭帶式顯示器,另一位透過電腦觀看同儕實際互動實況。透過量化和質化研究方法收集資料,包括受試者在英語字彙和聽力理解測試中的表現,以及對問卷和訪談的回應。 第一項研究結果顯示,行動虛擬實境對學習者的字彙學習和聽力理解有顯著影響,其中實驗組的學習成效較佳。從問卷調查和訪談分析發現,多數受試者認為行動虛擬實境能提升學習動機。在字彙學習方面,因3D虛擬實境富含多元視覺刺激,以及多媒體輔助工具,讓學習者之投入程度較高,故能提升語意和語用學習成效;在聽力理解方面,因3D虛擬實境能使受試者產生身歷其境的體驗,並有臨場感和擬真效果,以及與虛擬人物互動,故能提升聽力理解並發展較高層次分析、運用思考能力。相對地,控制組因以觀看影片為學習方式,部分受試者覺得觀看影片為日常例行的教學活動,較無新鮮感,內容較無趣,也較少情境刺激及互動的機會,故只會選擇性觀看,造成學習效果較差。 第二項研究結果顯示,實驗組雖然在字彙學習和聽力理解有比較好的表現,但與控制組相較之下,並無顯著差異。近半數受試者表示:同儕在旁一起學習,易分心,講英語會緊張,反而造成干擾和焦慮,減弱行動虛擬實境學習效果。相對地,控制組因對實況轉播實驗組在虛擬實境互動情形的影片感到興趣,更專心投入,因而有助其學習成效。 綜上,本論文證實了行動虛擬實境能使學習者在字彙學習和聽力理解上的提升,並增強其學習動機。從實務教學觀點,本研究建議將行動虛擬實境應用於英語教學,藉由擬真的生活情境和虛擬人物互動,營造外語學習情境,能有效提升學生字彙學習與聽力理解。此外,教師在設計行動虛擬實境分組學習活動時,應審慎評估同儕可能造成的交互影響。 關鍵字: 行動虛擬實境,第二外語研習得,字彙學習,聽力理解
Listening is often considered difficult and leads to anxiety among EFL learners in Taiwan. In addition to the limited exposure to English in authentic contexts and insufficient opportunities for authentic communication, limited vocabulary is a main difficulty EFL learners face in listening. Although recent advances in computer technology provides numerous alternative pedagogical opportunities for superior learnig experiences that are impossible to create in a traditional classroom, it is crucial to find out which media presentation produce the best results for English vocabulary learning and listening comprehension. Therefore, this dissertation aimed to investigate the impact of mobile VR on adolescent EFL learners’ vocabulary learning, listening comprehension, and perception. Futhermore, few studies explore the effects of different grouping on mobile VR-mediated language learning. The pros and cons of peer presence remain undetermined while students are learning in an immersive mobile VR environment. Hence, the impact of paired mode of mobile VR language learning on EFL learners’ vocabulary learning and listening comprehension was also examined. This dissertation comprises two studies. Study 1 investigated the effects of mobile VR on adolescent EFL learners’ vocabulary learning and listening comprehension. Forty-nine seventh graders were recruited from two classes. They were randomly assinged to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group interacted with the VR app Mondly using Samsung Gear VR. The control group watched the walkthrough video, which was identical in content to the VR app but had a different presentation mode as it was viewed on a computer screen. Study 2 examined whether the paired mode of mobile VR learning facilitated or hindered EFL learners’ vocabulary learning and listening comprehension. There were 22 seventh graders, who were paired. One participant in each pair was randomly assigned to either play Mondly or watch an identical video stream of their partners’ real-time interaction in the mobile VR environment. The results of statistical analyses indicated that mobile VR facilitated EFL learners’ vocabulary learning and listening comprehension in Studies 1 and 2. Further analysis revealed that there did not seem to be a positive paired-mode effect of mobile VR learning, which could be attributed to peer interference, such as distracted attention, increased speaking anxiety, and individual differences, and thus abated the VR effect. The qualitative analyses of the participants’ replies to the perception survey further demonstrated the mobile VR-mediated language learning was enjoyable, motivating, and useful for most VR players. The application of mobile VR in the classroom involved goal-oriented communication in an authentic context, high interactivity, active first-person participation, deeper engagement, individualization, and the construction of knowledge under a social constructivist point of view. These are the main features required to attract and motivate learners to learn better in a VR learning environment. In conclusion, mobile VR encompasses various benefits in facilitating vocabulary learning and listening comprehension, and consists of motivating elements as well. Therefore, mobile VR is highly recommended to be used in EFL vocabulary and listening instruction. Various scenarios in interactive mobile VR platform can offer teachers readily accessible teaching materials and immerse language learners in simulated real-life contexts for meaningful communication. However, some noticeable differences deserve further research in the future. They were particularly related to the potential obstacles of peer presence, which hindered the participants from learning effectively. Key words: Mobile VR, EFL, vocabulary, listening comprehension



行動虛擬實境, 第二外語研習得, 字彙學習, 聽力理解, mobile VR, EFL, vocabulary, listening comprehension