以同步多影像顯示擴增實境運用於潮汐教學對認知負荷之影響

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2015

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自然科學教育中的抽象概念常常造成學習與教學的困難,一般教學很難將這 些抽象概念具體呈現於教學之中,藉著數位教材的輔助才能提升學習成效,而擴 增實境是其中一種有效方式。擴增實境運用於數位教學早已行之有年,大部分對 教學成效、學習效果都有一定程度的正面影響;其中因為數位教材、與教學方式 的改變,對學習者學習中所造成的認知負荷值得被重視,也有多位學者進行相關 研究,Sweller、Van Merrienboer 與Paas(1998)的教材設計七大原則指出,不 同的教材呈現方式將會造成學習者認知負荷上的影響。 本研究旨在探討多影像擴增實境運用於潮汐教學,對學生所產生的認知負荷 影響與學習成效為何,與以往同步擴增實境教學有所不同,利用同步多影像顯示 擴增實境進行潮汐教學,並探討其與一般單影像與傳統影像的教學有何成效差別。 同步多影像顯示擴增實境是一種連影連動的擴增實境顯示方式,讓學生能夠同時 學習多個概念,此外,不僅只是老師的單向教學,學生也能夠透過自身的操作影 響學習中產生的認知負荷,提升學習成效。 研究對象分成三組,實驗組為同步多影像擴增實境教學,對照組為單影像擴 增實境教學與傳統媒體教學。實施教材為國小潮汐與教學單元,每組約26 人, 年齡為國小五年級學生,教學時間80 分鐘,並於教學前後實施認知負荷量表、 考卷與訪談測試。實驗後以認知負荷量表、考卷數據進行SPSS 共變數、變異數 分析,訪談內容做為實驗結果參考與輔助。 研究發現,同步多影像顯示擴增實境將多重概念融入潮汐教學,對學習者有 沒有認知負荷影響;潮汐教學中有許多抽象的自然科學概念,這些概念經過同步 多影像擴增實境融入教學,能夠提升教學、學習的成效與效果。 最後,並不是所有學生適用於資訊科技融入課程的學習方式,仍須考量學生 的科技使用能力來融入擴增實境進行教學,但可肯定的是擴增實境有助於提升學 習動機與學習成效。
In recent years, Augmented Reality has been applied to science teaching and has been considered to be an effective approach for interactive e-learning. Augmented Aeality materials are able to demonstrate abstract concepts in a physical and visualized form. However, as stated by Sweller, Merrienboer, and Paas (1998), different designs of information presentation might lead to the cognitive load of learners, the displays of augmented image may cause heavier cognitive load. Most Augmented Reality studies manipulated single overlay image in corresponding to the target content. For science learning, students learn the specific scientific concepts one at a time. However, in real situations, a scientific concept usually involves two or more phenomena/regulations that need to be observed. In the purposed study, we emploied a synchronous multi-display Augmented Reality instrument, which is able to present several images at the same time on a screen. In this synchronous multi-display Augmented Reality, each image on the screen represents a phenomenon/regulation related to the abstract concept. Learners can interact with the synchronous multi-display augmented reality device, perceive connections between these phenomena/regulations, and be aware of reciprocal interaction between each image. This research has been different from the previous Augmented Reality of teaching. Use Multi-display of synchronous AR for tidal teaching, and to find out the effectment of traditional teaching, previous AR teaching. Multi-display of synchronous AR applied the synchronous images on a monitor at the same time, students can learn multiple concepts simultaneously. Moreover, not only students learn one-way from teaching by the teacher, but also operate the model to reduce the cognitive load brought about in learning. The participants of intended study will be divided into three groups. Synchronous multi-display augmented reality and single image augmented reality materials will be given to the two experimental groups. Traditional animation presentation will be given to the control group. The scientific concept to be learned will be tide. Each group will comprise approximately thirty junior high school students. The teaching section will be 45 minutes for each group. A pre-tests, a post-tests and a cognitive load inventory will be given during the experiment. In addition, interviews will also be performed. Quantitative data will be analyzed statistically, and the interviewing results will be the reference for the numeric data. Since the tide involves the interaction between sun and moon, synchronous multi-display augmented reality material is likely to facilitate students to conceptualize the abstract ideas. There is no significant difference between results of the experimental groups and control group. The assumption is made that synchronous multi-display augmented reality teaching no generate, learners’ germane cognitive load and increase the learning efficiency.

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認知負荷, 同步多影像顯示擴增實境, 潮汐教學, 學習成效, cognitive load, multi-display of synchronous augmented reality, tidal teaching, learning efficiency

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