影響優秀田徑運動員成功生涯轉換的關鍵因素探討 The Key to Successful Career Change of Outstanding Athletes

Shu-Juan Chen
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本研究以質性研究來探討退休優秀田徑選手在生涯轉換歷程中,所經歷的成功關鍵因素,以及如何運用,在訓練階段所培養之特質發展及適應未來職涯的勝任能力,讓田徑運動員除了在追求受人矚目的獎牌及獎金數目之外,也能更深入的去瞭解自身在生涯歷程中所面臨的問題,得以讓這些尚未退役之運動員重新檢視、規劃自己生涯發展計畫。 本研究採用半結構訪談方式蒐集資料,依蔡敏玲(1995)所使用資料分析的「時間、主題、脈絡」三種模式,作為本研究整個資料分析的主要架構,再依其架構進行分析與探究運動員的成功生涯轉換關鍵因素。本研究在第一章緒論之後,便以第二章文獻探討,蒐集生涯歷程中之生涯發展相關文獻,作為研究設計及研究分析之依據。在第三章說明其研究方法與研究歷程。第四章的研究結果中,呈現的是四位研究參與者的生活脈絡SWOT分析,並以此分析評估生涯關鍵成功因素,並試著從五個生涯發展期中之生命殊相中找出共相,來探討每個時期各項重要生涯關鍵因素。在第五章結論中,將研究發現與分析做一整體概述,歸納出影響成功生涯轉換的內在因素及外在因素,並提出研究建議,以期用更多元的角度了解去了解退役田徑運動員的生涯發展路徑。 本研究結論如下: 四位研究參與者在進行職涯歷程中,整體而言他們成功的關鍵因素以三方面作為研究結論: 一、個人因素:具有國內心理學者所提出運動員追求成功卓越心理能力,模擬 所面臨環境變化、以正面態度面對事物,來達到目標。 二、家庭因素:父母親的教養方式民主, 但生活管教嚴謹,面對小孩的生涯 都以尊重態度及精神後盾,讓孩子在自身興趣、能力上,儘可 能的讓他們無後顧之憂的發展。 三、環境因素:研究參與者的因懂得掌握機會,善用資原,而每位參與者都成 為該專業領域的先鋒。 本研究建議是,運動員本身要有面對生活與工作的準備,主動尋找各種進修管道,培養第二專長及增進專業知能,工作考量以興趣及成就感作為驅力,並懂得將本身所具備的特質運用於生涯轉換,在生涯轉換時,更應培養正向積極的人生觀以及足夠的抗壓能力,確立目標,善用資源,將這些優勢與工作聯結,一定較容易在未來的事業中獲致成功 (洪聰敏,2003)。 運動員從光亮的榮耀舞台上走下來,其運動生涯經驗,可化成帶的走之能力,只要運動員能瞭解本身所擁有運動及生活潛力,將這些能力轉換到工作職場及生活應對上,即可使其生命的光輝在轉換舞台後得以繼續發揮(洪聰敏,2002),所以想成功轉換生涯,還是要運動員懂的掌握身邊資源外,本身也該善用自身具備能力去努力,並積極去面對未來生活及及早為工作做準備。
In this study, qualitative research is used to explore the key factors to success, that outstanding athletes would have undertaken in their career changes, and how would they make use of the characteristics cultivated from their past career trainings to develop their competence to meet the challenges of the future career, so that athletes, apart from pursuit of the eye-appealing medals and prize money, can better understand the issues they may face in their career journey, so as to re-examine and make plans for their own career development before retired from the athletic career. This study takes semi-structured interviews for data collection. The three data analysis models of "Time, Theme and Context" used by Min-ling Tsai (1995) is taken as the analysis framework of this study, with which the key factors to successful career change of athletes are analyzed and explored. The first chapter of this paper is Introduction, immediately followed by Literature Reviews of the second chapter, in which career development related literatures are collected as the basis for research design and analysis. In Chapter 3, the research method and research process are explained. In Chapter 4, the study results out of the four participant objects illustrate the life patterns of SWOT analysis, which are used to analyze and evaluate key factors to career success, and in an effort to discover the common phase out of the five special phases in the career development period, and to identify the critical career factors in each of the phases. Chapter 5 is the Conclusion, in which the outline of the study findings and analysis as a whole is given to summarize the internal and external factors that influence the success to career change, and make research recommendations, in hope of using more diversified perspectives to understand the career development paths of retired athletes. The conclusions of this study are as follows: In the ongoing career courses of the four participant objects of the study, the key factors to their successes can be viewed from three aspects for the conclusion: 1. Personal factors: this comes with the claims from some domestic psychologists who believe athletes have the mental ability of pursuing excellence, and are able to simulate the change of circumstances and take positive attitudes towards it, in order to achieve the their goals. 2. Family factors: athletes are usually raised in parental democracy environment, but with rigorous discipline of life, and are treated with respect and spiritually supported, so that in their youth they can do their best to develop their own interests and abilities without any worries. 3. Environmental factors: The participant objects of the study know how to grasp their opportunities and make good use of their resources, so that each one of them has become a pioneer of their respective professions. This study suggests that athletes should be prepared to face life and work, and proactively seek training opportunities to develop their second skills and enhance their professional knowledge, and work considerations should be driven by interest and sense of achievement, knowing how to apply self characteristics to the career change, and in the course of the career change, they should cultivate positive outlooks on lives and adequate stress-resistant capabilities, to set up goals, make good use of resources, so as to combine their advantages with their works for a better chance to secure success in their future careers (Tsung-Min Hung, 2003). Athletes after retreating from their glorious stages can carry their sports career experiences with them, and as long as they understand their potential of sport and life, and convert the capabilities into the workplace and daily life, they will be able to continue their glories of lives on new stages (Tsung-Min Hung, 2002). In other words, for the successful career change, athletes need to know how to master the resources around them, and make good of use of their own advantages to strive and actively face their future lives with early preparations.
優秀田徑運動員, 生涯轉換, 關鍵因素, Outstanding Track and Field Athletes, Career Change, Key Factors