高中生個人信念、環境偏好與認知負荷在網路 學習上之效應 The effects of personal beliefs, environmental preferences and cognitive load on the web-based learning among high school students

Date
2009
Authors
張正杰
Chang Cheng-Chieh
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Abstract
本研究嘗試透過問卷量表調查,由高中生「個人知識認識信念」、「網路學習信念」、「網路學習環境偏好」與「認知負荷」等四個量表,由心理與情意層面來探討影響高中生網路學習成效的因素。研究對象為剛升二年級的基隆市高中生,2006年三個班人數共102人,2007年三個班人數共98人,進行為期四週的網路合作學習課程,課程內容攸關全球暖化之議題。高中生個人知識認識信念量表係參考(Schommer’s Episetmology Questionnaire, SEQ)量表,發展出李克特五分量表(Revised Episetmology Questionnaire, REQ),用以瞭解學生的知識與學習信念。認知負荷方面係由學生認知負荷自評表(Self-rating Measures of Cognitive Load, SMCL)來測量學生在網路學習課程中,付出的心智努力與心理負荷程度。本研究自行發展兩個量表,(一)網路學習信念量表(Beliefs about Web-based Learning, BWL),網路學習信念理論基礎源自於計畫性行為理論(Theory of Planned Behavior, TPB);(二)網路學習環境偏好(Web-based Learning Environment Preference ,WLEP) 問卷,係根據Perry所強調之學習環境元素,以及Mioduser 等人針對網路學習環境所做的類別分析研究,而後發展出來。另外,學習成效方面主要以線上測驗與語意流程圖(Flow map method)方式來當作學習成效的指標。最後利用徑路分析(path analysis)統合上述相關因素,建立架構出影響數位學習成效的解釋模式。 研究結果發現:(一)高中生網路學習課程後,在線上測驗分數與語意流程圖中的概念數皆有顯著的進步;(二)徑路分析的結果顯示「網路學習信念」、「學生個人認知負荷」與「學生個人網路學習環境偏好」直接影響到學習成效,而「個人知識認識信念」透過「網路學習信念」與「網路學習環境偏好」可能間接影響到學習成效。 最後,本研究建議未來規劃設計網路學習課程的教學者:(一)設計者需考量在網路習環境中的教材內容與多元學習環境可能會造成學習者的認知負荷,多媒體教材須酌量簡化配合;(二)高中生認為網路學習並非快速,或許配合傳統的雙重教學環境下,學習效果將會更佳;(三)學生網路搜尋的技巧與方式須事先給予訓練或教導;(四)高中生樂於在網路學習環境中進行互動交流,並且偏好具有結構性、以概念學習為主的網路課程設計;在認知過程方面首重於概念的連結與問題解決,互動形式方面則較喜歡與非同步的專家或教師溝通,及與同儕討論區的互動。這些都是本研究針對未來高中生網路課程設計時所給予的建議,以期能有效率地提升學生的學習成效。
Abstract This study aims to explore factors that influence senior high school students’ web-based learning by measuring personal epistemological beliefs, beliefs about web learning, preferences about web-based learning environment and cognitive load using Likert-Scale questionnaires. Two hundred participants in the 11th grade came from an academic senior high school in Keelung city. Each two of them were paired as a team to complete a four-week online curriculum on the topic of global warming. To examine students’ epistemological beliefs, a 5-point Revised Epistemology Questionnaire (REQ) was developed based on Schommer’s Epistemology Questionnaire (SEQ), and a self-rating measure of cognitive load (SMCL) was developed to measure students’ mental efforts for studying the online curriculum. In addition, two other questionnaires were modified based on previous studies to probe beliefs about web-based learning (BWL) and students’ preferences about web-based environments (WLEP). Concept achievements as the outcome of students’ web-based learning were indicated by online tests and the flow map method. To integrate these above-mentioned factors, a path analysis was conducted to establish the explainable model on web-based learning outcome. The results show that there were significant improvements on online test and the concept achievements measured by the flow map method after the web-based curriculum. The path analysis shows the learning outcome was directly affected by students’ beliefs about online learning, cognitive loads and their preferences about web-based environments. Besides, it was found that students’ epistemological beliefs indirectly affected students’ learning outcome. Several recommendations are made for future web-based curriculum design. First of all, taking into consideration students’ cognitive loads resulting from the content structure and the multi-media instructions embedded in the digital learning environments, the teaching and learning materials should be simplified. Second, based on students’ opinions that online study is not always effective, it is suggested that web-based instructions are better to cope with traditional instructions. Third, students need to be trained with web searching strategies. Fourth, an effective web-based curriculum should make use of senior high school students’ willingness of having interacts with other members within web learning environment and their preference of structured and concept-based learning programs. Finally, it is important to connect concepts learning with problem solving activities. For the interactive aspect, web-based instructions should encourage students to consult experts or instructors.
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個人知識認識信念, 網路學習環境偏好, 網頁式學習, 徑路分析, epistemological beliefs, beliefs about web-based learning, web-based learning, path analysis
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