尋找一個位置:幼兒園女性園長的領導經驗

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2005

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本研究的目的是透過性別的觀點,探索幼兒園女性園長的領導經驗。目前有關幼兒園園長的領導重心多半放在幼兒園園長的領導行為與風格,以及其領導行為對於教師工作滿意度的影響,但是對於女性領導者如何在社會文化的影響之下,建構出屬於自己的領導風格,以及幼教女性化的工作職場特性如何影響女性園長的領導等,這些在幼兒園園長的研究當中都鮮少被提及。因此,本研究主要從女性園長的經驗出發,探討女性園長從成為一個園長的過程,到身為園長的角色,如何發揮其領導,以及在領導經驗中所面臨的個人、家庭與社會文化的困境,試圖建構出女性幼兒園園長的領導經驗。 本研究以八位女性幼兒園園長為主體,採取質性研究,以深度訪談、園所觀察以及文件收集等方法蒐集資料,每一位園長至少接受六次以上的訪談與四十小時以上的觀察。園長訪談的內容主要在瞭解女性園長的成長歷程以及領導經驗;觀察部分則以園長的園務工作為主,同時藉由觀察的內容,作為訪談與澄清問題的基礎。另外各園視園所規模至少有一到二位老師接受訪談,教師訪談內容主要在了解老師對園長的領導行為的看法與感受。 本研究發現幼兒園女性園長在領導的經驗中,受不同園所文化情境脈絡的影響,她們身處於複雜的園所互動關係中,尋找一個屬於自己的領導位置。本研究主要獲致以下結論: 一、成長歷程、家庭教養與幼教工作特性建構出女性園長關懷領導的特質。 二、女性園長的晉升受個人、家庭與環境所影響。 三、女性園長的領導位置視園所屬性差異而有所不同。 四、女性園長對自己角色與園所文化的譬喻以「家庭」為核心的概念 五、女性園長的領導充分展現一種對人的關懷與網絡式的領導風格。 六、男人是女性園長領導背後無形的舵手。 七、女性園長工作後的進修受制於家庭因素。 八、女性園長面臨來自個人、家庭、園所組織結構與社會文化結構的困境。 基於上述結論,本研究分別針對女性園長、師資培育機構、教育行政機關以及後續研究等,提出相關建議作為參考。
The purpose of this study was to explore the leadership experiences of female directors in kindergartens from a gendered point of view. Most past research has studied the leadership and managerial style of directors in kindergarten and the influence of leadership on teachers’ job satisfaction. However, research studies about how a female director builds her own managerial style under the influence of the social culture and how the feminization of career place of childhood education affects female directors are seldom mentioned at present. Thus, in the view of leadership experiences of female directors, this study aims to discover the process of a female becoming a director in kindergartens; how the female directors function at work and the situations that need their attention; the influences of individual, family and social culture while being a leader; and an attempt to develop more leadership experiences for female directors in kindergarten. Quantitative research methods are utilized in this study. Interviews, observations, and reviews of relevant documents are used as tools for data collection. The participants are eight female directors who work in kindergartens in Taiwan. Each director had been interviewed at least six times and observed for more than forty hours. As for the interview, the main purpose is to understand the growing process and leadership experiences of these female directors; as for observations, we focus on kindergarten-related business which laid the foundation of the interview and question clarification. In addition, in order to find out teachers’ opinion and feeling about the leadership of their director, one or two teachers (according to the scale of the kindergarten) were interviewed as well. This research indicated that the leadership experiences of female directors were affected by the cultural context of various kindergartens. These female directors were looking for a specific role for themselves from the complicated interaction in kindergartens. The major results drawn from this study are as follows: 1. Growing process, family education and the characteristic of children education construct caring leadership of female directors. 2. The advancement of female director is affected by individual, family and objective environments. 3. The leadership position of female directors differs depending upon properties of kindergarten. 4. Metaphor of female director: the core conception is ‘family’. 5. Female directors perform sufficiently in being attentive to people and an intricate web of managerial style. 6. Male was an invisible challenge behind the female director. 7. Female directors’ advanced study was bound up with family reason. 8. Individual, family, the kindergarten organization and social culture system were big challenge for female directors. Accordingly, the study goes further to give some recommendations to directors who works in kindergarten; normal universities and universities that provide normal education curriculum, and researchers; educational administration; and future works.

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領導, 幼兒園領導, 女性領導, Leadership, Leadership in kindergartens, Female leadership

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