幼兒與母親扮演遊戲會話輪替行為之縱貫研究

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2021

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Abstract

本研究目的在探究幼兒於20月齡、26月齡及36月齡時其會話輪替能力發展。研究樣本為20對母親與其20月齡大幼兒,分析幼兒與母親在三個不同月齡層時,扮演遊戲時會話輪替行為之縱貫研究。幼兒與母親之會話輪替行為表現以錄音記錄,且使用兒童語料交換系統(CHILDES)轉譯成CHAT格式進行編碼;以統計軟體SPSS23.0版進行描述性統計分析,描述在親子遊戲會話中,母親與幼兒20、26、36月齡時,其話輪類型、反饋項目、話輪規則的差異與變化;再以單因子變異數分析,檢驗分析幼兒與母親於不同月齡親子共玩時,兩者的話輪類型、反饋項目、話輪規則是否出現顯著差異。研究發現:(1)話輪類型:幼兒與母親在會話中,主要話輪類型為單句話輪,且單句話輪與複句話輪之表現隨著其月齡增長呈現增長趨勢;其中,母親句群話輪之表現,會隨著幼兒月齡增長而逐漸減少。(2)反饋項目:幼兒之反饋項目表現,會隨著其年紀增長而呈現減少趨勢;而母親之反饋項目表現在三個月齡層中,則未出現顯著差異。(3)話輪規則:會話中,幼兒主要以聆聽者自選發言之方法獲取話輪,隨著幼兒月齡增長,所占比例亦同步增加;母親則以說者指定幼兒發言的話輪規則進行會話。最後針對研究結果,對未來相關研究提出具體的建議。
This research discusses the turn talking skills of 20, 26 and 36 month old children. Using a sample of 20 mother and children pairs, we analyzed turn talking behavior during play. We first recorded their conversations and used the CHAT format for transcribing. Next, we used the software package SPSS23.0 to conducte descriptive and ANOVA statistical analyses to determine the differences in turn types, feedback items and turn rules for children at 20, 26 and 36 months old during play. We then used ANOVA to determine whether there are statistical differences for different ages.Results show that (1) In mother and children pairs, single sentence turns are the most common turn type, single sentence turns and complex sentence turns tend to increase with age, while the opposite is true for maternal multiple sentence turns. (2) The number of feedback items in children decreases with age, while there is no significant difference for mothers. (3) In conversation, young children tend to start turns spontaneously; the proportion of such cases increase with age. Mothers on the other hand do so autonomously. Finally, we point out suggestions for research and implications based on our results.

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幼兒, 會話輪替, 縱貫研究, 話輪類型, 反饋項目, 話輪規則, feedback, turn types, turn rules, turn-taking, preschool children, longitudinal research

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