武場學員參與太極拳運動觀念與技能學習之探討

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2008

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武場學員參與太極拳運動觀念與技能學習之探討 日期:97年6月 研 究 生:張萬田 指導教授:闕月清 摘要 本研究以台灣師大武場的學員作為研究對象,研究目的為探討適合太極拳傳承的教學模式。研究方法以鬆淨觀念及階段式學習作為教學引導策略,採現場錄影觀察記錄、半結構式訪談與相關文件,作為資料蒐集與分析的依據。研究結果如下:(一)在觀念學習上,以太極鬆淨觀念作為教學引導,符合太極拳論的觀念。發現以「比喻」方式,最能表達觀念的意象,利用具體比喻以加深對鬆淨真實意涵的了解和感受。參與者由原沒放鬆的觀念,在學習後能很清楚明白鬆淨是什麼形象,感受起來是如何。使鬆淨的觀念不只在認知上已建立,還存有真實體驗過的感受。(二)在技能學習上,以全身放鬆不用力做伸展繞圈,對於肌肉、關節放鬆軟有很好的幫助。鬆淨檢測法與自我檢查法的應用,讓參與者在太極拳練習上,慢慢習慣放鬆的擺架模式,自我練習的情況也越加熱絡。動作技能的學習是呈螺旋的方式,動作在緊繃、放鬆些的感受與修正中逐漸形成鬆淨的,符合動作學習理論。研究結果顯示正確觀念及教學方法的引導,再經過不斷的練習、修正,參與者皆能達到動作精熟的程度。本研究發現可提供太極拳教學者及其他研究者對指導方法之應用做參考。 關鍵詞:楊家老架太極拳、武場、鬆淨、觀念、階段式學習
A Study of the Concept and Skill Learning of Tai Chi Exercisers of the Martial Arts Practice Ground Date: June, 2007 Graduate Student: Wan-tien Chang Adviser: Keh Nyit Chin, Ph.D. Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the phenomena and problems of instructing and learning of Tai Chi. Participants were from the Martial Arts Practice Ground (MAPG) in National Taiwan Normal University. With the idea of thorough relaxation as the key instructing points, it was set out to instruct and learn in stages. From the interactions between the instructor and participants, the changes of concept and skill performance of the participants were investigated. Qualitative method was used in this study. Data were collected from the on-spot video tapes during instruction, semi-structured interviews, and related documents. The various data were analyzed using content analysis. The results were as follows: (1) On conceptual learning, “metaphorical approach” was the best way to express the image of a concept. In another word, to have the concept materialized would greatly help the participants to understand. When the participants recognized the concepts of thorough relaxation, they felt the body relaxation, the soften muscles and rope-like body action. (2) On skill learning, stretching and circling in a relaxed way would greatly help the exercisers ease up their muscles and joints. The skill learning showed a spiral increase, meaning that a big step forward and a small step backward. It matched the principles of motor learning. With right concept and suitable ways of practicing, the participants could be more skillful and with the repeated practice and corrections. The introductions of the relaxation test and the self test had helped the participants practiced in a relaxed way. Self practicing was also increasing. These findings have implications for Tai Chi instructor and future studies in Tai Chi. Key words: The Yang’s Tai Chi, Martial Arts Practicing Ground, thorough relaxation concept, stage learning

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太極拳, The Yang’s Tai Chi

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