兒童繪畫空間重疊表現之研究:主題, 表現情境對國小中低年級兒童的重疊繪畫表現策略之影響

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2000

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本研究旨在瞭解兒童繪畫空間的重疊表現策略,並探討不同的主題,不同的表現情境對於兒童在繪畫空間重疊表現上的影響情形。本研究之對象為180位來自基隆市5所小學與2所幼稚園之5,7,9歲兒童。他們被隨機分派成兩組,分別接受「重疊的球」或「牆後的人」其中1個主題的指示,然後在「記憶畫」、「寫生畫」、「圖形辨識」3種表現情境下作出重疊表現。 本研究採用3(年齡)×2(主題)×3(表現情境)三因子混合實驗設計。實驗處理為兒童在2個主題,3種表現情境下的重疊表現,並以年齡、主題、表現情境為自變項,以兒童在重疊表現評分標準的3項後測分數作為依變項。俟完成資料的收集後,進行三因子變異數分析,以驗證本研究之研究假設。茲將本研究主要發現摘述如下: 一、兒童繪畫空間重疊表現策略之類型,主要可歸納為:「分離」、「透明」、「掩蓋」等三種類型。 二、兒童繪畫空間重疊表現策略之運用,以「部份掩蓋」和「水平分離」兩種表現策略為主。 三、年齡、主題、表現情境三者對兒童繪畫空間重疊表現之交互影響效果不顯著。年齡與表現情境對於兒童重疊繪畫表現之影響,不會因為主題的不同而改變;表現情境與主題對於兒童重疊繪畫表現之影響不會因為年齡的不同而改變。 四、主題、表現情境對兒童繪畫空間重疊表現之影響 (一)兒童的重疊繪畫表現受到2個主題和3種表現情境的交互影響。主題對於兒童重疊繪畫表現的影響,會隨著表現情境的改變而改變;表現情境對於兒童重疊繪畫表現的影響,亦因為主題的改變而改變。 (二)不分主題,兒童在圖形辨識、寫生畫、與記憶畫3種表現情境中,在圖形辨識情境的重疊表現優於在寫生畫情境,在寫生畫情境又優於在記憶畫情境。 (三)在寫生畫情境,7歲以後兒童的重疊繪畫表現,逐漸因為視覺提示物的影響,而面臨寫實技巧上的難題。 五、年齡、表現情境對兒童繪畫空間重疊表現之影響 (一)兒童的重疊繪畫表現受到年齡、表現情境之交互影響。年齡對於兒童重疊繪畫表現的影響,會隨著表現情境的改變而改變;表現情境對於兒童重疊繪畫表現的影響,亦隨著年齡的不同而不同。 (二)不分表現情境的情況下,兒童的重疊表現能力會隨著年齡的增加而提高。 (三) 不分年齡的情況下,兒童的重疊表現能力在圖形辨識情境優於在寫生畫情境,在寫生畫情境又優於在記憶畫情境。 六、年齡、主題對兒童繪畫空間重疊表現之影響 (一) 7歲以前,兒童的重疊繪畫表現,較不受到視覺提示物的影響,而受到主題「造形之差異性」的影響。 (二) 到了9歲,兒童的重疊繪畫表現可能因為視覺提示物的影響,而在兩個主題的重疊繪畫表現能力,出現反轉的現象。 根據上述研究之發現,研究者提出對兒童繪畫教學,兒童繪畫教學評量,以及對未來研究之建議。 關鍵詞:兒童畫、空間表現、繪畫表現策略、重疊。
Spatial representation in drawing: the influence of topic, task on spatial representation strategies of occlusion in children’s drawings Bor - Song You Abstract The purpose of the study to investigate the strategies of spatial representation of occlusion in children’s drawings. The influence of topic, task on spatial representation of occlusion in children’s drawings were considered. One hundred and eighty subjects aged 5, 7, 9 years were selected from five primary schools and two kindergardens in Keelung, Taiwan. They were randomly assigned to two groups, one took Topic 1 test (one ball behind another ), another took Topic 2 test (a girl behind the wall ). All subjects participated in three tasks, including drawing from memory (Task 1), drawing from observation (Task 2), and graphic judgment (Task 3). A 3 × 2 × 3 (age × topic × task) mixed experimental design was used. All subjects’ spatial representation of occlusion on 2 topics, 3 tasks were treatmented. Age, topic, and task as independent variables. Subjects’ three scores on treatment classified by criteria of spatial representation of occlusion as dependent variables. After collecting datas, using three-way ANOVA to identify the influence of topic, task on spatial representation of occlusion in children’s drawings. As following shows the main discoveries in this study: 1. The strategies of spatial representation of occlusion in children’s drawings were classified as in essential “Segregation”, “Transparency”, and “Occlusion”. 2. The strategies of spatial representation of occlusion in children’s drawings were “Partial occlusion” and “Horizontal segregation” two kinds mainly. 3. There was no significant interaction between age, topic and task. 4. The influence of topic, task on spatial representation of occlusion in children’s drawings. (1) There was significant interaction between two topics and three tasks. The effect of topic on spatial representation of occlusion depended on task. The effect of task on spatial representation of occlusion depended on topic. (2) The children’s spatial representation of occlusion in graphic judgment task were better than they did in observation task. The children’s spatial representation of occlusion in observation task were better than they did in memory task. (3) Above 7 years, children’s spatial representation of occlusion in drawings would faced the challenge of skills of representation by visual stimuli. 5.The influence of age, task on spatial representation of occlusion in children’s drawings. (1) There was significant interaction between age and task. The effect of age on spatial representation of occlusion depended on task. The effect of task on spatial representation of occlusion depended on age. (2) The elder children’s spatial representation of occlusion were better than younger children in three tasks. (3) The children’s spatial representation of occlusion in graphic judgment task were better than they did in observation task. The children’s spatial representation of occlusion in observation task were better than they did in memory task. 6.The influence of age, topic on spatial representation of occlusion in children’s drawings. (1) Under 7 years, the effect of children’s spatial representation of drawings depended on “difference between shapes”of topic, not the visual stimuli. (2) Until 9 years, the children’s spatial representation of drawings on 2 topics could reversed by the visual stimuli. Finally, the suggestions for instructional method, evaluation, and advanced research in children’s drawings are discussed. Keywords: children’s drawings, spatial representation, strategies in drawings, occlusion

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兒童畫, 空間表現, 繪畫表現策略, 重疊, children’s drawings, spatial representation, strategies in drawings, occlusion

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