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本研究之動機始於針對國際間著名博物館與國立故宮博物院進行案例比較後之啟發;如英國的大英博物館、法國的羅浮宮,每年在觀光方面,無論是對所在之城市、地區、或整個國家,也無論是有形經濟效益或無形的城市或國家形象之提昇都有巨大的貢獻。與之相較,在典藏方面質與量皆能與以上各館等量齊觀之國立故宮博物院,近年在我國觀光客倍增、陸客來臺觀光者愈眾、以及許多軟、硬體更新措施之配合下,對國內觀光旅遊業雖然已發揮許多效益,但整體而言,與上述國際案例相較,無疑的仍然有許多成長的空間。 由上述情況中看來,在當代社會中,博物館與觀光兩個領域,在全世界各國都有日益整合的趨勢,也確能達成相輔相成的效果。因此,筆者想進一步探索博物館與觀光資源間的跨領域整合現象與課題,期望能以國立故宮博物院為本研究之基本案例,將研究所得,為臺灣的博物館與觀光領域之政策,提出初步建言。 本研究具跨領域研究性質,必須採取多元化的研究方法;首先是文獻方面之探討,筆者將之分為博物館學領域、觀光學領域、藝術管理領域與國家文化政策等四個角度進行,以之做為本研究之立論基礎。其次,透過對國內外博物館的案例研究,以補充文獻探討的不足。第三,利用對政策決定面之官員、博物館從業人員、觀光旅遊業者以及相關學者等進行面訪,希望能補充上述研究方法之不足。最後,針對參觀國立故宮博物院觀眾進行問卷調查,希望能取得觀眾最直接的意見反映,提供本研究發展最終建言的基礎。 本研究之結論可以分為兩個層面。其一為透過以上四種主要研究方法解析後,可以明確看出,國立故宮博物院的觀光資源與潛力,不僅相當豐富,更有許多觀光資源是國立故宮博物院獨一無二,是其它國際著名博物館所無法擁有的。以國立故宮博物院為本體,若能成功地進行相關觀光資源整合,還能將觀光效益擴大至臺灣中、南部其它觀光景點,這一點也是其它國際大型博物館難以望其項背的。換言之,國立故宮博物院不僅能成為一個國際級人文觀光景點,還可以透過資源整合、包裝與行銷,一躍而成為臺灣觀光產業的龍頭。其二,以國立故宮博物院的成功整合模式,還能夠將其成功經驗,複製於臺灣其他博物館,如國立歷史博物館、臺北市立美術館,臺北縣鶯歌陶瓷博物館等,相信能將臺灣的文化觀光產業,帶至另一個截然不同的層次。 於未來展望方面,本研究建議能將目前臺灣博物館的事權和行政體系層級,進行進一步的整合,則臺灣豐富的博物館與觀光資源,將更能順利的進行整合規劃,也因此能發揮更大、更深、更寬廣的效益。
The inspiration for this study came from a desire to compare the ability of world-renowned museums such as the National Palace Museum in Taipei, the British Museum in London, and the Louvre Museum in Paris, to provide economic benefits, whether tangible or intangible, to a host city, region, or country. In recent years, the amount of tourists from mainland China to the National Palace Museum doubled due to in part by Museum hardware and software updates. Although the domestic tourist industry has solicited many positive benefits, when compared with the international cases, there remains much room for improvement. As seen from the aforementioned cases, the museum and tourism industries are becoming increasingly integrated and mutually reinforcing, leading to a successful industry. Therefore, this study hopes to further explore this cross-integration of museums and tourist resources not only to better understand the phenomena but to also focus on the National Palace Museums and the Taiwan tourism resources in order to play a more active role in the future development of this integration. For the completion of this study, a wide range of research methods were required. First, literature from the four perspectives of museum studies, tourism studies, art management, and cultural policies was first reviewed and analyzed to serve as the theoretical base of this study. Further research regarding case studies from the Louvre Museum and the British Museum, as well as other museums in Taiwan was compiled in order to supplement the shortage of literature. Third, interviews with professionals such as officials from museums, the Tourism Bureau, tourism academics, as well as tour operators were conducted in order to gain a more well-rounded view. Finally, surveys from visitors of the National Palace Museum were compiled to help supplement the existing information. The conclusions of this research can be divided into two categories. First is the analysis of the four research methods used in this study. From these findings, it is clear that the tourism resources available to and provided by the National Palace Museum are both abundant and unique. Through appropriate resource integration, packaging and marketing, the National Palace Museum could be a leader in increasing tourism to central and southern Taiwan. Should other museums in Taiwan such as the National History Museum, the Taipei Fine Arts Museum, or the Taipei County Yingge Ceramics Museum follow, the outcome of the integration would be at an entirely different level. This study proposes that in the future, the Taiwanese museums will able to smoothly integrate on an administrative level with the rich tourism resources found in Taiwan in order to reap greater benefits.



博物館, 觀光資源, 國立故宮博物院, Museum, Tourism, National Palace Museum