荷蘭起司文化和歷史之探究——以阿克馬地區為例

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2020

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地方文化被視為一項具有開發潛力的經濟及文化資源,其功能包含延續地方傳統文化、凝聚社群共識與認同感等。然而,因全球化盛行,各地文化面臨式微與同化的挑戰,故一地如何保存、創新並傳遞在地文化價值是現今的重要課題之一,而飲食文化的演變與囊括的價值更是被視為地方文化的重要載具。 起司文化在荷蘭飲食文化中佔有舉足輕重的地位,自中世紀初,綠色心臟地帶始出現起司產業的雛形,直至今日依舊盛行。起司文化所轉化的展演型態在不少地區成為發展觀光的重要元素,其中又以阿克馬所呈現與保存的歷史收藏最為完善,由政府協同在地商家與博物館舉辦活動,進而吸引各地遊客前來參訪,達成地方文化之推廣。 故本研究旨在以荷蘭阿克馬地區為例,透過歷史文獻、官方網站、導覽手冊與深度訪談進行論述分析。從文化與觀光層面切入,輔以遊客與當地居民的視角,探討當地起司飲食文化的形塑過程。透過飲食與觀光資源結合下,作為兩大地景的起司博物館和起司交易市集,在闡述起司文化上達成了向外推展、向內傳達在地認同的目標,並為阿克馬建構鮮明的在地意象,成為荷蘭的觀光重鎮之一。
Local culture is regarded as an economic and cultural resource with potential development, which functions as the continuation of local traditional culture, the convergence of community consensus and the identity. However, due to the prevalence of globalization, local cultures face the challenges of micro-simulation and assimilation. Therefore, the preservation, innovation and transmission of local culture values is one of the big issues nowadays. The evolution of food culture and its value can be seen further as an important vehicle for local culture. In the Dutch food culture, the cheese culture has played a necessary role since the early Middle Ages. The first form of the cheese industry emerged in the Green Heart at that time. To date, the cheese culture has been popular and transformed into vital elements for developing tourism in several areas of the Netherlands. For instance, Alkmaar can be seen to present and preserve the historical cheese-related collections the most completely among them. To achieve the promotion of local culture, its government cooperates with local business and museums to attract the tourists from all over the world. With the historical documents, official websites, guidebooks and in-depth interviews, this research attempts to discuss the cheese culture in Alkmaar. Explore the process of shaping the local cheese culture by knowing the aspects of culture and tourism, supplemented by the perspectives of tourists and local residents. Through the combination of food and tourism resources, the cheese museum and the cheese market have not only achieved to promote cheese culture abroad and enhance the local identity, but also set the impressive image for Alkmaar to become one of the vital tourist towns in the Netherlands.

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起司, 飲食觀光, 荷蘭, 地景文化, 阿克馬, Cheese, Food tourism, The Netherlands, Culture of landscapes, Alkmaar

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