雙收入家庭育兒的甜蜜與負荷:知覺工作與家庭互利的影響

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2014

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本研究主要目的在探討雙收入家庭家長知覺工作與家庭互利程度及其背景變項,對於育兒的甜蜜與負荷感受之影響。本研究採問卷調查法,研究工具包括「基本資料」、「工作與家庭互利量表」以及「育兒的甜蜜與負荷量表」,透過立意取樣以及滾雪球方式,針對台中地區育有3至6歲子女的家長,全職工作,與配偶同住,且為雙收入核心家庭作為研究對象,回收有效樣本共421份。研究發現如下: 一、雙收入家庭家長的背景變項與知覺工作與家庭互利 雙收入家庭家長受試者普遍能知覺工作與家庭相互正向增利,且知覺工作對家庭之利程度越高,知覺家庭對工作之利程度也越高。背景變項中,「教育程度」對知覺工作對家庭之利有顯著的差異,大專院校畢業的雙收入家庭家長知覺工作對家庭的影響,顯著高於國中及以下教育程度的家長;「工作時間」對於知覺家庭對工作之利有顯著的差異,平均每周工作60小時以上的雙收入家庭家長知覺家庭對工作正向影響的程度,顯著低於每周工作40至49小時每周工作的家長。 二、雙收入家庭家長的背景變項與育兒的甜蜜與負荷感受 雙收入家庭家長育兒的甜蜜與負荷感受傾向高甜蜜、低負荷的情形;育兒甜蜜與育兒負荷則呈現顯著負相關,也就是說,雙收入家庭家長受試者的育兒甜蜜感受越高,育兒的負荷感受越低。而背景變項中,「教育程度」對於育兒的甜蜜與負荷感受有顯著差異,國中及以下教育程度的雙收入家庭家長,育兒的甜蜜感受最低;「工作時間」亦對於育兒的甜蜜與負荷感受有顯著差異,平均每周工作時間60小時以上的雙收入家庭家長,育兒的甜蜜感受顯著低於平均每周工作40至49小時的父母。 三、雙收入家庭家長知覺工作與家庭互利對育兒的甜蜜與負荷感受影響 知覺工作與家庭互利以及育兒甜蜜呈現正向關係,且當雙收入家庭家長知覺工作與家庭互利越高,育兒的甜蜜感受越高。至於育兒負荷感受,本研究發現雙收入家庭家長知覺工作與家庭之間的互利程度無法有效解釋育兒的負荷感受。
The purpose of this research was to understand the child-care happiness, child-care demands and work-family facilitation of dual-income family parents. Additionally, to understand whether the child-care happiness and child-care demands of dual-income family parents could be significantly explained by Demographics variables (gender, age, education, number of child, and working time) and work-family facilitation. A questionnaire, purposive, and snowball sampling were used to obtain responses from 394 participants of dual-income families who both have full-time jobs and at least one child at preschool age in Taiwan. Results indicated that participants tended to experience a higher level of work-family facilitation as well as child-care happiness, and they experienced lower level of child-care demands. In the Demographics variables, ‘education’ reported in significant difference to work-to-family facilitation and child-care demands. Participants with bachelor's degree showed a higher level of work-to-family facilitation than those who only graduated from junior high school level. Participants who only educated from junior high school indicated the lowermost level of child-care happiness. In the meanwhile, ‘working time’ reported a significant difference to family-to-work facilitation and child-care happiness. Participants who working over 60 hours per week displayed a lower level of family-to-work facilitation and child-care happiness than those working between 40 to 49 hours per week. Regression analysis revealed that child-care happiness could be enlightened by work-family facilitation. Child-care happiness was higher when participants perceived more work-family facilitation. On the other hand, child-care demands was not able to be explained by work-family facilitation.

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雙收入家庭, 工作與家庭互利, 育兒甜蜜, 育兒負荷, 育兒感受, child-care happiess, child-care demands, work-family facilitation, dual-income families

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