老年人個人屬性、依附風格、心理需求與憂鬱情緒之關係研究~以高雄市長青學苑老年人為例

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2009

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本研究主要探討不同個人屬性變項的老年人,其依附風格、心理需求和憂鬱情緒之間的關係。主要研究目的在於:一、探討不同個人屬性變項的老年人,在依附風格、心理需求與憂鬱情緒方面的差異情形。二、瞭解老年人的依附風格、心理需求與憂鬱情緒之間的關係。三、根據研究結果,提出具體建議,以做為未來研究及專業人員在老年人心理健康照護服務之參考。 本研究以高雄市「長青學苑」60歲以上之老年人為研究對象,以「心理需求量表」、「依附風格量表」、及「CES-D憂鬱量表」等組合成「個人心理健康調查問卷」進行問卷調查。共得有效樣本285份。根據問卷調查所得的資料,以描述統計、單因子多變量變異數分析、單因子變異數分析、逐步多元迴歸分析、典型相關等統計方法進行資料分析。研究結果如下: 一、不同個人屬性變項的老年人在依附風格、心理需求重要性與滿意度及憂鬱情緒上的差異情形: (一) 不同主要經濟來源、婚姻狀況和居住狀況的老年人在依附風格上有顯著差異。 (二) 不同教育程度的老年人在心理需求重要性上有顯著差異。 (三) 生活費用是否足夠花費、不同健康狀況及有無宗教信仰之老年人,在心理需求滿意度上有顯著差異。 (四) 不同主要經濟來源及健康狀況的老年人在憂鬱情緒上有顯著差異。 二、 老年人的依附風格和心理需求之重要性和滿意度之間具有典型相關。 三、 老年人的依附風格、心理需求重要性和滿意度對憂鬱情緒的預測情形: (一) 老年人的「焦慮依附」和「安全依附」得分可有效預測其「憂鬱情緒」。 (二) 老年人的「定向需求」重要性和滿意度可有效預測老年人的憂鬱情緒。 根據以上研究結果,本研究提出建議,做為未來研究及專業人員在老年人心理健康照護服務之參考。
This study is to find the relationship between attachment styles, psychological needs, and depressive emotions in elders. The purpose of this study is:(1)to assess the different individual demographic characteristics in attachment styles, psychological needs, and depressive emotions of elders, (2)to understand the relationship between attachment styles, psychological needs, and depressive emotions of elders, and(3)to propose recommendations for further studies and suggestions of elderly mental health service for professional workers, according to the above findings. The research objects were students aged 60 years and up from Kaohsiung Evergreen College. The instrument used for assessment was the “Personal Mental Health Survey”, which included an Attachment Styles Scale, a Personal Psychological Needs Scale (designed by the researcher), and a CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale). There were a total of 285 valid objects’ data. Data obtained in this study was analyzed by descriptive analysis, one way MANOVA, one way ANOVA, Stepwise regression for statistical analysis, and canonical correlation analysis. The results were as follow: 1. The differences in attachment styles, psychological needs, and depressive emotions of different demographic characteristics of elders, (1) Elders with different main economic source, marital status, and living situation, have significant differences in attachment styles. (2) Elders with different educational level have significant difference in the importance of psychological needs. (3) Elders’ scarcity of living allowance, difference in health situation, and religious believes, have significant differences in satisfaction of psychological needs. (4) Elders with different main economic source and different health situation, have significant differences in depressive emotions. 2. The attachment styles were significantly related to the importance and the satisfaction of psychological needs. 3. The prediction of depressive emotions based on elders’ attachment styles and importance of psychological needs. (1) The scores in the anxiety attachment style and the secured attachment style of elders can predict their depressive emotions. (2) The importance and satisfaction of the psychological need of a frame of orientation can predict the depressive emotions of elders. Finally, according to the above findings, some recommendations for further studies and suggestions of elderly mental health service for professional workers were proposed.

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老年人, 依附風格, 心理需求, 憂鬱情緒, elders, attachment style, psychological needs, depressive emotions

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