Analyzing Metaphors and Lexicon in Election Rhetoric

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Jennifer M. Wei

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Office of Research and Development


本研究以1998臺北市長選舉中,國民黨候選人馬英九及民進黨候選人陳水扁兩人的文宣及相關報導為研究個案,進一步探討其中詞彙及隱喻的使用及影響。研究假設:詞彙及隱喻是幫助我們瞭解周遭世界的語言工具,也是候選人表達政黨理念及人格特質等面向的語言策略之一。文宣策劃藉著競選語言中的詞彙、隱喻及隱喻延伸來形容及定位候選人。而另一方面,文宣及舉報導中之詞彙及隱喻也反應候選人施政態度及人格特質。論文最初簡介北市市選舉情勢及有關議題,之後指出國內有關書面競選文宣相關研究。實例分析以 1998 選舉中之新詞彙,如油灌車、金達尼號等語彙的產生及其文化意涵為始,進而分析舊詞新用的例子,如:解套、解盤等股市用語及與「票」相關之詞彙延用,對臺灣選舉文化之影響。文中更進一步指出,民進黨候選人陳水扁,使用「水牛」、「媽媽」與「家庭主婦」等隱喻以表示其親民,草根性,及關心女性選民,並藉此迴避其他尖銳問題如:重大災情及死傷人數。國民黨候選人馬英九,則以「扮演不同角色」以表示其從政態度,並以「家」為隱喻,表達其對臺北市的感情及進一步澄清負面文宣中質疑其本土性。資料的收集採自候選人截止登記日至開票前一天之相關選舉資料,含各大報紙、雜誌、傳單、電視辯論及網路資訊。藉著對此次臺北市長競選文宣中的詞彙及隱喻做一整理、分析,找出其社會文化根源情境,我們希望能解釋政治論述中,詞彙及隱喻與認知的相關性,及進一步瞭解政策訴求、人格特質與語言使用的關係。
This paper analyzes election rhetoric used in 1998 by two candidates for Taipei mayor, challenger Ma Ying-jeou of the Kuomingtong (KMT) and incumbent Chen Shui-bian of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP). It focuses on newly coined phrases, a pervasive lexicon that reflects the local election culture, and metaphors and imageries used to create involvement and to evoke emotions during televised interviews. The paper further argues that linguistic devices such as lexicon and metaphors are not mere rhetorical embellishments, but are central aspects of the election message that affect the ways in which the voters perceive, think, and act (cf. Lakoff and Johnson 1980). Such devices not only differentiate one candidate from another but also create involvement and evoke emotions from voters in order to dodge tough questions. In other words, they serve pragmatic functions, but are also charged with symbolic forces within the highly contested socio-political context of the 1998 Taipei mayor election. Data were collected from written materials on the election found on the Internet, the newspapers, and in manazines during the election period. By comparing and analyzing the different metaphors and lexicon used by the KMT and DPP Taipei mayoral candidates, this paper not only demonstrates how the candidates' distinct styles were incorporated into metaphors and images they choose, but also analyzes the socio-cultural effects of some of the elections most characteristic language.