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本研究探討一位二至十二個月大嬰兒(穠穠)玩躲貓貓遊戲的行為特徵並分析這位嬰兒在躲貓貓遊戲中的心智表現。本研究採參與觀察法,並輔以訪談家長,歷經十一個月,每週兩次,每次兩小時至研究對象家中觀察。 研究結果發現,穠穠玩躲貓貓遊戲的行為發展及心智表現可分為「隱而未現‧若有似無」、「微笑‧注視」、「期待(躲藏者的出現)」、「移動身體尋找躲藏者」及「主動玩躲貓貓遊戲」五個階段。 在「隱而未現‧若有似無」階段(二至三個月大),穠穠會發出「ㄣ」的聲音、嘴巴會張開一下或是眼睛張大直視前方的遊戲對象。在「微笑‧注視」階段(四個月大),主要的遊戲行為是微笑、撥開我的手並注視我的臉,心智表現方面顯示身體機制理論的運作。 在「期待(躲藏者的出現)」階段(五至八個月大),穠穠會以自己的身體動作叫躲藏者現身、注視我的背影並期待我的再現身,且在不同的躲貓貓遊戲情境中選擇性地發出笑容。在「移動身體尋找躲藏者」階段(九至十個月大),她會揣測我的臉現身的位置,並移動身體尋找我。 在「主動玩躲貓貓遊戲」階段(十一至十二個月大),穠穠會操弄遮蔽物遮臉、聽到「一ㄠㄣ」聲,會雙手用力把遮蔽物往下拉,也會躲到傢俱後方,由模擬過程中逐步了解我的想法。 歷經十一個月玩躲貓貓遊戲的過程中,穠穠表現出自己特有的躲貓貓遊戲玩法,似乎形成了自己獨特的躲貓貓遊戲理論。 最後,根據研究結果針對父母、照顧者及後續研究提出相關建議。 關鍵字:躲貓貓遊戲、心智表現
This study aimed to analyze the behavioral characteristics and mental performance of an infant (Nora) playing a peekaboo game during her age from 2 to 12 months old. Participant observation approach and parents interviews were conducted during the 11 months study. The researcher observed 2 hours a time, twice a week at the infant’s home. Results indicated that Nora’s behavioral development and mental performance while playing a peekaboo game could be divided into five stages: indistinct stage, smile and gaze stage, expect (the hider’s reappearance) stage, move to find the hider stage, and actively play a peekaboo game stage. During “indistinct stage” (2-3 months old), Nora made sounds like “en”, opened her mouth, and looked straight at the researcher. At “smile and gaze stage” (4 months old), she began to smile, pull the researcher’s hands off, and gaze at the researcher’s face. The mental performance showed the operation of “Theory of Body” mechanism. At “expect (the hider’s reappearance) stage” (5-8 months old), Nora made body movements to request for the hider’s reappearance, stared at the researcher’s back and expected the reappearance, and selectively smiled in certain contexts of peekaboo games. At “move to find the hider stage” (9-10 months old), Nora guessed where the researcher’s face would appear and moved to look for it. At “actively play a peekaboo game stage” (11-12 months old), Nora used shelters to hide her face, pulled down shelters with both hands when she heard the sound “yi ao en”, and hid her whole body behind the furniture. Nora gradually understood the researcher’s mental states through the simulating process. During the 11 months of peekaboo games, Nora demonstrated her own ways of playing and formed her unique peekaboo theory. Based on the results of the study, some suggestions were proposed for parents, caregivers, and future studies. Keywords: peekaboo game, mental performance



躲貓貓遊戲, 心智表現, peekaboo, mental performance