Dietary characteristics and blood biochemistry in healthy middle-aged Chinese with high, medium, and low fat intake

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Lyu L-C, Cheng H-H, Shieh M-J

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傳統中式家常飲食是以米食或麵食(主食類)提供絕大部份的熱量來源。近年來,由於富裕的家庭經濟來源,國人的飲食習慣也逐漸傾向著重非主食類為主的飲食;三大熱量供應營養素的分配也傾向脂質提高而醣類減少的型態。本研究之目的為比較高、中、低脂質飲食之特性及其對血液膽固醇(TC),血液三酸甘油醋(TG),及飯前血糖(AC)之影響。樣本取自參加公保健檢之健康中年人,利用24小時回憶法收集其飲食資料;身高、體重、血壓及各檢驗值經由其健檢資料而取得。共分析137位中年人之資料:高脂組為脂質提供熱量45%以上者49人(女35,男14);中脂組為提供30%到45%者39人(女28,男11);低脂組為低於30%以上者49人(女33,男16)。 分析結果摘要如下: (l)飲食特性:總熱量攝取,不論男女皆為高脂>中脂>低脂組;不飽和脂肪酸/飽和脂肪酸比例,不論男女皆為高脂<中脂<低脂組,但無顯著差異。對三大熱量供應營養素之分佈而言,其中蛋白質分佈三組相近,因為當脂質攝取量上升,醣類之攝取便顯著下降,各組間不分男女p值皆小於0.05。 (2)血液生化:不論男女,AC值為高脂>中脂>低脂組,但各組無顯著差異。TG值女生三組中以低脂組最高,高脂組次之;男生為高脂組最高,低脂組次之。TC值男女皆為高脂組最高,低脂組次之。但皆無顯著差異(P>0.05)。 (3)複迴歸結果:無論依變項為AC、TG或TC,在中、低脂組有顯著貢獻之自變項,少有飲食相關者;但在高脂組,這些生化指標則受到多項飲食因子之影響。 本研究顯示,健康中年人如攝取高脂飲食,醣類攝取會明顯下降,其總熱量攝取會略為上升。在中、低脂飲食,飲食因子對心血管疾病相關之血液生化影響並不顯著;但高脂飲食組,便出現相當之影響。
For most ethnic Chinese, the main energy source of traditional homemade meals is cereals: rice and wheat products. In recent years, with an improved socio-economic status for the Chinese in Taiwan, many people have tended to eat less cereal than in the past, thus changing the distribution of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in energy-supplying nutrients. This study compares dietary characteristics and blood parameters for people with high, medium and low fat diets; it also identifies different influences on blood lipid levels in high, medium, and low fat intake. Healthy middle-aged government employees were interviewed to obtain 24-hour dietary recall and other lifestyle information, at their annual health examination at the Government Employees Clinic Center in Taipei. Data was collected including height, weight, blood pressure, ante cibum blood glucose (AC), fasting serum triglyceride (TG), serum cholesterol (TC). Of the 137 subjects studied, 49 (35 females, 14 males) were in the high fat group (HFG), with fat intake over 45% of total calories; 39 subjects (28 females, 11 males) were in the medium fat group (MFG), with fat intake between 30% to 45%; and 49 subjects (33 females, 16 males) were in the low fat group (LFG), had a fat intake under 30%. Results showed that: 1) Same trend in total calorie intake were observed for males and females, HFG>MFG>LFG; The percent of calories from protein was similar in all three groups; carbohydrate intake was the compensation as fat intake increased. 2) Although for difference were not significant, AC was highest in HFG, lowest in LFG for both males and females; TC was highest in HFG of both males and females; highest TG in LFG for females, whereas highest in HFG for males were observed. Using the backward method, a prediction equation was developed for AC, TG, and TC.