P. J. Palmer「教學的勇氣」之理念及其在教與學的蘊義

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Center for Educational Research and Evaluation


研究目的探討P. J. Palmer「教學的勇氣」之理念及其對教與學行動的啟示。研究設計/方法/取徑本研究採取哲學詮釋學的研究取徑。研究發現或結論教學恐懼的主要起於教師無法認識真我,並忽略師生價值觀與生活方式差異的事實。為降低遇到差異的恐懼,師生們多以理性化的教與學策略控制各自主觀情緒,並在公共領域中刻意拉開彼此的安全距離,結果卻造成各種疏離關係。為改善這種現象,Palmer 建議教師努力從「愛的知識論」出發,並以「開放心」打破度自我保護的恐懼,勇敢地面對自己、社會、自然和宇宙間的弔詭性及恐懼感,才可能刺激彼此反思既有價值、知識、經驗侷限,讓每個人的理性、情感和靈性都納入「偉大事物」的知識與倫理關係。研究原創性/價值本文為完整探討Palmer「教學的勇氣」之理念及其延伸之教與學恐懼與勇氣的理論性研究,對教師面對差異經驗的教學行動,培養「心的習性」、擴展有機人際連結與更寬闊的知識版圖具重要參考價值。
PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to explore P.J. Palmer’s theory of “courage to teach” as well as the implication for teaching and learning.Design/methodology/approachMethods of philosophical hermeneutic are employed to investigate important works of Palmer.FindingsAccording to Palmer, fear of teaching is caused by the fact that instructors are not able to know their true self. Another significant cause lies in the ignoring of different personal values and lifestyles between students and teachers. To reduce the fears related to these differences, students and teachers alike make use of rationalized teaching and learning strategies to control their subjective feelings. In this way, students and teachers seek ways to increase safe distances between them, but end up resulting in alienation. In order to improve this situation, Palmer suggests that teachers work to keep the epistemology of love as their starting point. He also suggests that teachers open their own hearts to vanquish those fears, which cause us to excessively protect ourselves as well as to face with courage the paradox and fear existing between ourselves, society, nature and the universe. Only in this way will students and teachers provoke each other into reflecting the limitations of their own personal values, knowledge and experience, allowing each individual’s reason, emotions, and spirituality to be brought into the relationship between the knowledge and ethics of great things.Originality/valueThis study holistically explores Palmer’s theory of “courage to teach” as well as his extended notion of fear and courage within both teaching and learning. The results showed higher reference values for instructors and learners to cultivate their habits of the heart, to expand their organic interpersonal connections and to broaden the boundaries of their knowledge.