海峽兩岸國中自然教科書之內容分析比較-以牛頓力學為例

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2011

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本研究旨在探討臺灣國中自然與生活科技以及中國大陸初中物理教科書對牛頓力學處理方式的異同,至於教科書版本的選擇,臺灣方面是採用康軒的國中自然教科書,中國方面則採用人教版的初中物理教科書,並針對牛頓力學部分進行分析比較。研究所採用的方法為內容分析法,分析的範圍包括兩岸對於牛頓力學相關主題的課程目標與課程理念之異同,另外還包括牛頓力學在兩岸教科書中陳述方式的異同、實驗活動在探究層次與過程技能的異同、編排方式的異同、圖表功能的異同和輔助教材內容的異同。 本研究的結果如下: 以康軒版教科書而言:該版本對科學概念的描述較深入,實驗部分較注重變因的判別,內容編排方面較能顧及學生學習概念時所需之先備知識,圖表種類較多元化。惟在實驗部分多採食譜的方式呈現、對科學現象背後的原因及現今科技議題著墨較少。 以人教版教科書而言:該版本在科學概念的廣度上衍生較多的應用,包括在科技上的應用,實驗部分則著重引導學生建立假說、設計實驗、分析和解讀數據以及推論實驗結果,輔助教材方面的題型多元化。惟課程編排順序較無法兼顧學生的先備知識,而且相關圖表較為單調,教學功能不大。 此外,兩版本對於科學過程技能與科學概念的描述差異不大。 對於臺灣自然科教科書未來改版時,本研究根據結果提出如下建議: (1)在課文描述方面,能提供學生更多獨立思考的空間;章末「延伸閱讀」可多增加科學史的介紹。 (2)增加現今科技的議題,使學生更能掌握科學在生活中的應用。 (3)增加讓學生練習畫力圖的機會,並增加每小節練習題的題數。 (4)實驗方面建議減少以食譜式介紹實驗的方式呈現,並逐年增加讓學生提出假說、設計實驗、分析資料與推論結果的機會。
The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in organization and presentation between science textbooks from Taiwan and Mainland China on Newton’s Mechanics at the junior high school level. Due to the limitation of time and resources, only the Kang Hsuan(康軒) version of integrated science textbooks from Taiwan and the People’s Education (人教) version of physics textbook from Mainland China will be used for comparison. This research attempts to analyze the similarities and differences of curriculum standards and curriculum syllabus in curriculum objectives and curriculum ideas between Taiwan and China. The analysis of the following parts are also included: the similarities and differences of curriculum standards and curriculum syllabus in the presentation of textbook, the similarities and differences of inquiry and process skill in the activity of experiment, the similarities and differences of the function of diagrams, and the similarities and differences of learning materials for students. The research findings were as follow: The Kang Hsuan edition had a more detailed description of science concepts. In general, it paid more attention to the discernment of factors in its experiments. It also paid more attention to the prior knowledge that was necessary in its content arrangement. Moreover, the diagrams appeared in more varieties that served different functions in the Kang Hsuan edition. However, its experiments were delineated more in a fashion similar to a cookbook. It touched less neither on the causes of scientific phenomena nor on applications of science to modern technology. The People’s Education edition had a broader discussion on application of science concepts to technology. Its treatment of experiments was oriented towards guiding students to raise hypotheses, design experiments, analyze and interpret data as well as draw conclusions. Its exercises had more variation of item types. However, its order of content arrangement paid less attention to the prior knowledge of students. Moreover, its diagrams were more monotonous with limited pedagogical functions. Nevertheless, the two editions did not differ much in terms of their presentation of science process skills and discussion of science concepts. As regards improvements that can be made in future editions of Taiwan’s textbooks, the following suggestions are made: (1) The content materials should be rendered in such a way so that students are encouraged to think more independently for themselves. Relevant events from science history can be included in the extended reading section at the end of each chapter. (2) Coverage on modern technology should be increased so as to enable students to understand how science can be applied in our daily lives. (3) More practices should be included for students to draw force diagrams. In general, more exercises should be provided at the end of each chapter. (4) The presentation of experiments in a cookbook manner should be kept at a minimum. Instead, presentation in terms of students generating hypothesis, designing experiment, analyzing data and drawing conclusion should be included. The latter format should become more prevalent in upper grades.

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教科書, 牛頓力學, textbook, Newton’s Mechanics

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