dc.contributorWeng, Chia-Fenen_US
dc.contributor.authorChung, Hua-Linen_US
dc.description.abstract李奧納多.伯恩斯坦(Leonard Bernstein, 1918-1990)為二十世紀美國音樂巨擘,他是一位指揮家、作曲家、也是著名的音樂教育家。作品橫跨器樂、聲樂、交響曲、音樂劇及宗教音樂。其宗教作品《齊切斯特詩篇》(Chichester Psalms)完成於一九六五年,為英國南方薩克斯郡齊切斯特大教堂任職的牧師沃爾特‧赫西 (Rev. Walter Hussey)委託伯恩斯坦為供溫徹斯特、薩里斯貝里和齊切斯特三所大教堂的合唱團所寫的節慶作品,於夏季合唱慶典中演唱。 《齊切斯特詩篇》分為三個樂章,各樂章皆以一篇完整及另一篇節錄數節的《詩篇》作為歌詞,用希伯來文演唱。第一樂章以滂礡的力度,躍動的不規則七拍子,動機之間的音程也是各過渡調性之間的關係,加入調式音階配合力度的漸強,製造轉換樂段的張力,明亮的銅管配器和主音織度的合唱,節奏型態活潑熱鬧,歡騰熱鬧地讚頌耶和華。第二樂章以寧靜的力度,緜長的線條,豎琴伴隨的男童或假聲男高音之獨特音色刻畫大衛的宗教意象,藍調的音程運用,使旋律呈現流行樂感,女聲與男聲合唱各自代表兩篇不同歌詞的音樂個性,在樂段中大小調性並列、節奏、力度上面都呈現極大對比。第三樂章以九和弦及複雜的增減音程,模糊曖昧的調性,力度上頻繁且細微的變化,在屬性為禱告的歌詞中,人聲齊唱歌詞「啊」表達內心深處的呼喚,在尾奏的無伴奏人聲合唱中,以全樂章開頭的動機頭尾呼應,極致寧靜的作結。 指揮者在詮釋《齊切斯特詩篇》時,必須先了解希伯來文的發音規則及歌詞重音,並且知曉逐字逐句的翻譯,才能幫助歌者將音樂與歌詞有所連結與想像,再來掌握各動機及旋律風格、節奏變化,善用拍型提示脈動、清楚地提示速度轉換,設計合理的動作框架範圍來指揮戲劇性的力度,演出時根據場地的音響效果,考量音量、音色的平衡與協調性,決定合唱團及樂器各聲部最佳的擺放位置。 本論文共分五個部分,於首章「緒論」中探討研究動機、研究範圍與內容、及研究方法與文獻;第二章「背景探究」分為三節,論述伯恩斯坦生平概述、歌詞探究還有樂曲創作背景;第三章「樂曲分析」依照各樂章分成三節分析樂曲的創作手法;第四章為「指揮技巧及音樂詮釋」分為五節,第一節介紹歌詞發音,第二節討論合唱團與樂團擺放位置,接著依序討論三個樂章的音樂詮釋及指揮技巧,第五章為「結論」。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractLeonard Bernstein (1918 - 1990) was a giant among 20th-musicians. He was a well-known conductor, composer, and music educator. He wrote music of various genres, such as instrumental music, vocal music, symphonies, musicals, and scared music. His famous work, Chichester Psalms, was composed in 1964 and premiered in1965. It was written for the choirs of Winchester, Salisbury, and Chichester cathedrals to perform in Summer Choral Festival, and was commissioned by the dean, Walter Hussey, who served in the Cathedral of Chichester in Sussex, England. Chichester Psalms are divided into three movements which respectively use a complete psalm and another psalm with several verses as lyrics sung in Hebrew. The first movement has strong dynamics and lively compound meters. The intervals among motives are also applied to the keys’ relationship of various transitions. The mode with crescendo creates tension in transitions between paraphrases. Bright brass sound and homophonic texture of chorus, and three repetitive yet cheerful rhythmic patterns praise Jesus. The second movement uses soft dynamics, tender and long melodic lines, and the unique voice of boy soprano or countertenor accompanied by two harps to picture David’s religion image and applies intervals of blues to create sense of pop music. Female and male voices respectively represent lyrics and music personalities of different psalm chapters, presenting great contrast in major and minor keys, rhythm, and dynamics. The third movement uses ninth chords, augmented and diminished intervals, vague and unclear keys, and frequent and subtle change in dynamics. Voices together sing “ah” to express the deepest inner call and wholeheartedly invocation in lyrics of prayers. In a cappella at the coda, music echoes with motive of the beginning of the movement as a tranquil conclusion. The conductor should know the diction, accent, stress words of Hebrew when performing Chichester Psalms. Moreover, he or she also needs to know the translation word by word to help singers associate music and lyrics. Then, the conductor should know the motives, melodic styles, change of rhythms well, and use meter patterns to suggest the pulses, and indicate the change of tempi by clear hand gestures. In order to perform dramatic dynamics, the scope or frame of the conducting should be defined in advance. Finally, the positions of choirs and instruments are properly arranged in accordance with sound effect of the venue and balance and harmony between volume and music. This research consists of five chapters. The first chapter is “Introduction,” focusing on author’s research motivation, study area and content, methodology, and literature review. The second chapter is “Background Study,” which includes three sections: Bernstein’s biography, Bernstein’s view of religion and its impact, compositional background of Chichester Psalms and origin of its lyrics. The third chapter, “Analysis of the Composition” analyzes Bernstein’s compositional technique from all three movements. The fourth chapter is “Musical Interpretation and Suggestions on Conducting Techniques,” providing interpretation suggestions for each movement. At last, the fifth chapter is “Conclusion”.en_US
dc.subjectChichester Psalmsen_US
dc.subjectTwentieth-century American Major Choral Worken_US
dc.titleThe Analysis and Interpretation of Chichester Psalms by Leonard Bernsteinen_US