太極拳對老年人上階梯動作之影響 Effects of Tai-Chi in elderly during stair ascent

Date
2021
Authors
李書維
Lee, Su-Wei
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Abstract
本研究目的主要是探討65歲以上的老年人參與太極拳運動與一般運動在登階轉換的運動學與動力學參數上的差異,以了解參與太極拳運動和一般運動的老年人在登階轉換時動作控制上的差異。本研究以11名長期練習太極拳的老年人和15名一般運動的老年人為研究對象。以十台Vicon 紅外線攝影機(Vicon MX13+, Germantown, Oxford, UK, 250Hz),兩塊測力板(Kistler 9281; 9287, Winterthur, Switzerland, 1000Hz),同步收集受試者蹬階轉換過程中的運動學與動力學參數進行分析探討,所得資料使用獨立樣本 t 檢定和相依樣本 t 檢定進行統計分析,顯著水準   .05。結果:太極拳的老年人年齡較大。和平地路期相比,在上階梯期,一般人擺動腳有較大跨步速度,時間,步頻和髖關節,膝關節活動範圍;支撐腳呈現較大髖關節和膝關節活動範圍,有較大的垂直、向後和較小的向前地面反作用力,較大的髖關節屈曲力矩、膝關節伸展力矩和踝關節蹠屈力矩。和平地路期相比,在上階梯期,太極拳擺動腳則有較大的跨步髖關節和膝關節活動角度;支撐腳有較長的支撐時間,較大的髖關節、膝關節和踝關節活動範圍,有較大的垂直、向後和較小的向前地面反作用力,較大的髖關節屈曲力矩和踝關節蹠屈力矩。結論:在平地走路期和上階梯期,兩組受試者皆具有相同的運動表現能力。而且太極拳年齡較大,表示長期練習太極拳運動有助於改善老年人運動能力。和平地路期相比,兩組受試者在上階梯期的轉換過程中,除了太極拳有較大的踝關節活動範圍和支撐時間,一般人則增加跨步速度來維持上階梯期的穩定。和平地路期相比,一般人在上階梯期的轉換過程中有較大的髖關節、膝關節和踝關節力矩,並產生向上和向前的作用力。和平地路期相比,太極拳在上階梯期的轉換過程中有較大的髖關節和踝關節力矩,且產生向上和向前的作用力。因此,長期規律運動的老年人登階轉換過程中,會採取不同的下肢步態力學和肌力,可能維持身體的平衡以降低跌倒發生的機率。
The purpose of this study is to investigate the difference between the kinematics and kinetics parameters between Tai Chi and Normal regular exercise people over 65 years during the floor-to-stair transition, in order to understand the difference while performing ascending and walk phase. Eleven Tai Chi elderly and 15 normal healthy elderly were recruited as subjects. Ten Vicon infrared cameras (Vicon MX13+, Germantown, Oxford, UK, 250Hz), two force plates (Kastler 9281; 9287, Winterthur, Switzerland, 1000Hz) were synchronized to obtain kinematics and kinetics data. Independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test were performed for statistical analysis (  .05). Results: Tai Chi elderly people were older than Normal elderly. Compared to walk phase, Normal elderly swing foot demonstrated a significantly greater stride speed, stride time, cadence, hip and knee range of motion (ROM) during ascending phase. And Normal elderly support foot demonstrated a significantly greater hip and knee ROM; vertical and posterior ground reaction force (GRF); hip flexion, knee extension and ankle plantarflexion moment during ascending phase. Compared to walk phase, Tai Chi elderly swing foot demonstrated a significantly greater hip and knee ROM during the ascending phase. And Tai Chi elderly support foot demonstrated a significantly greater step time, hip, knee and ankle ROM; vertical and posterior GRF; hip flexion, and ankle plantarflexion moment during ascending phase. Conclusion: Both groups have the same performance ability during the walk and ascending phase, and Tai Chi elderly is older, indicated that long-term practice of Tai Chi elderly can help improve the performance ability of the elderly. Compared to walk phase, both groups showed same lower limb ROM except for Tai Chi elderly, which has a larger support ankle ROM and step time during floor to stair transition, Normal elderly increase stride speed to maintain the stability of ascending phase. Compared to walk phase, Normal elderly showed greater hip, knee and ankle moments during floor to stair transition, resulting in upward and forward forces. Compared to walk phase, Tai Chi elderly showed greater hip and ankle moments during floor to stair transition, resulting in upward and forward forces. Therefore, the elderly who exercise regularly for a long time will adopt different lower limb gait mechanics and muscle strength during floor to stair transition, which may maintain the balance of the body to reduce the probability of falls.
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Keywords
跨步, 關節活動範圍, 關節力矩, stride, joint range of motion, joint moment
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