親親尊尊:北魏靈太后的價值取向析論

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2021-09-??

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國立臺灣師範大學
National Taiwan Normal University

Abstract

北魏靈太后於蘭陵公主殺婢節解案中,展現了得不受成文法拘束而任意行使權力的一面,那案中的靈太后又何以做出有利於蘭陵公主的裁決呢?是基於給如親近皇族這類親尊者以特權的「經典」動機,還是對公主投以「同為女性」的愛護呢?首先,本文藉由北海王元詳及京兆王元愉案,說明從靈太后之夫宣武帝時期,即靈太后進入宮廷以來,帝國便至少在公開宣傳上能引以為豪地無視成文法典而予對皇家親尊之人物以特權,即使涉及謀反亦然。其次,本文歸納靈太后當權後處理趙郡王元謐與胡氏夫妻、盧道虔與濟南公主夫妻、汝南王元悅、高陽王元雍、高聰、元叉、侯剛等案,認為靈太后不但沒有逆轉皇權給親尊者(以皇族為中心但不限於皇族)特權的傳統,反而變本加厲,同時靈太后於男女關係上也予親尊者以極大的自由,如此,也就與靈太后於殺婢節解案中應是較關注於其與蘭陵公主親近而與劉輝疏遠,並非執著於劉輝不忠或男性欺侮女性等的觀點,若合符節。
This paper investigates the reasoning behind Empress Dowager Ling's adjudication in the case of Princess Lan Ling's maidservant's dismemberment. Although it could plausibly be argued that Empress Dowager Ling was motivated by a sense of gender solidarity with Princess Lan Ling, this paper argues that the weight of evidence favors an interpretation where the Empress Dowager was motivated instead by the privileged status she accorded to friends and family. This paper presents nine cases involving women who were the same age as Empress Dowager Ling. The cases of Yuan Hsiang and Yuan Yu are instances of Empress Dowager Ling's husband, Emperor Hsuan Wu, disregarding the law—granting preferential treatment—with respect to thosewho are on intimate terms with the royal family, a group including even rebels. When Empress Dowager Ling became ruler of the Northern Wei Dynasty, she was even more inclined to give preferential treatment to friends and family, as evident in the cases of Yuan Mi, Princess Chi Nan, Yuan Yueh, Yuan Yung, Kao Tsung, Yuan Cha, and Hou Kang. We conclude that the Empress Dowager's adjudication of the matter between Princess Lan Ling and Liu Hui reflects the same tendency.

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