以正向心理觀點探討退休中老年人幸福感及其相關因素之研究

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2011

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本研究目的在於瞭解退休中老年人幸福感之現況,並探討背景變項、健康狀態、正向環境及正向特質對幸福感的影響,另外亦探討正向特質是否在正向環境及幸福感之間扮演著中介變項的角色,建立結構方程模式。本研究以家庭結構、家庭資源與家庭關係做為正向環境,以生命統整性做為正向特質,幸福感做為正向情緒。 本研究以結構式問卷進行資料蒐集,採立意取樣方式在台北市收取296位50-75歲的退休中老年人為研究對象,最後獲得有效問卷289份。研究對象平均年齡64.76±5.72歲,70.6%為女性。統計分析以套裝軟體SPSS16.0進行描述性統計與相關分析,並以Amos16.0套裝軟體建構結構方程模式。 結果顯示正向環境與正向特質皆顯著影響幸福感。以多元逐步迴歸進行分析以探討幸福感之重要預測因子,發現家庭關係、經濟狀況、生命統整性與健康狀態進入模式,可有效解釋幸福感40.1%的變異量,其中家庭關係是退休中老年人幸福感最重要的預測因子,可單獨解釋幸福感27.4%的變異量。另外為探討正向環境、正向特質對幸福感的直接效果與間接效果,以家庭關係、生命統整性與幸福感進行結構方程模式分析,經修正後獲得可接受模式,模式適配度卡方自由度比值=1.833、RMSEA=.054、CFI=.903;在此模式中,家庭關係與生命統整性對幸福感的直接效果量分別為.52與.30,而家庭關係對生命統整性的直接效果量為.26,家庭關係透過生命統整性影響幸福感的間接效果量.08。 本研究支持家庭關係與生命統整性為退休中老年人幸福感重要的預測因子,培養良好的家庭關係與生命統整性有助於提升退休中老年人的幸福感。另外本研究亦支持家庭關係會透過生命統整性的中介作用影響幸福感,正向特質的培養對於正向環境之不足具有緩衝之作用。
Objective: This study examined the correlations between three pillars of positive psychological: positive environment, positive individual traits, and positive emotions. Researcher chooses Family relations for positive environment, Sense of Coherence (SOC) for positive individual traits, and Happiness for positive emotions. Methods: Use Antonovsky (1987) developed Sense of Coherence Scale short version scale with 13-items (SOCS-13), and Happiness was assessed with Chinese Happiness Scale short version scale with 20-items (SCHI) (Lu& Lin, 1998). 296 participants were valid questionnaires collected 50-75 olds retirement who retired before 2009 in Taipei City, final used for this study were 289, up to 97.64%. Participants mean age were 64.76±5.72 years, 70.6% women. Results: Multiple regression analysis found the important predictors of happiness were family relations, economic state, SOC, and health state; those four variables can explain 40.1% variance of happiness. Using structural equation modeling, analyzed the direct and indirect affect for Taiwanese retirements’ happiness, a good fit was suggested by theχ2/df (1.83), RMSEA (.05), and CFI (.90). The final structural model accounts for 51.5% of Family relations, and 30.7% of SOC in Happiness; 25.8% of Family relations in SOC, Family relationship had direct effects (7.9%) on happiness. Conclusion: The data suggest Family relations is an important role of Happiness in Chinese cultural; and SOC was a mediator between Family relationship and Happiness.

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正向心理學, 生命統整性, 退休中老年人, 幸福感, 家庭關係, Positive Psychology, Sense of Coherence, Retied Older, Happiness, Family Relations

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