以資訊公開作為高等教育政策工具之研究 A Study on Information Disclosure as a Policy Instrument for Higher Education

Date
2022
Authors
馬湘萍
Ma, Hsiang Ping
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Abstract
1980年代後期,歐美國家相繼採用市場治理來因應高等教育擴充後所產生的教育經費、品質和績效問題,市場治理邏輯主張公開大學資訊讓學生進行明智且知情的選擇,以增進大學提升品質和績效。此外,新治理主張的網絡治理提出資訊公開作為高等教育透明工具,並強調大學資訊應對學生及相關利害關係者公開,以促進績效、決策、理解和支持。OECD指出,高等教育機構與企業組織一樣,應對外公開治理過程及成果資訊。近期,學術界及行政界倡導證據為本的研究和決策,資訊公開乃是證據本位決策之基礎及關鍵要素。以上不論是市場治理、網絡治理、企業治理以及證據治理,均強調大學資訊公開之重要性,資訊公開漸受高等教育決策者重視並納入政策。近年來,美、英等國家基於高等教育市場消費者選擇之資訊需求,建立高等教育資訊平臺,公開大學資訊提供學生作為校系選擇之參考。臺灣亦於2005年建立制度性之大學評鑑並將評鑑資訊對外公開,並於2015年建立「大專校院校務資訊公開平臺」。本研究目的為探究政府以資訊公開作為高等教育政策工具之理由、了解推動成效、探究面臨之挑戰以及各界對其之建議。本研究採質性研究取向,並以訪談作為資料蒐集方式。研究結果發現:(1)政府採用資訊公開作為高等教育政策工具之理由為高等教育治理及大學自主之需求、高等教育市場機制之需求、大學社會責任所需、促進大學良性競爭、證據本位政策規劃所需以及資訊工具成本較低;(2)對於政府公開大學資訊成效,認為在大學績效課責、爭取外界支持大學以及促進大學良性競爭等具有初步成效,並能促進大學決策與內部管理以及政府決策,但在降低學生和大學間的資訊不對稱成效則較有限;(3)政府推動大學資訊公開面臨資訊正確性、資訊即時性、資訊穩定度、資訊相關性、資訊傳遞及解讀、資訊應用、資訊機敏性以及造成兩極化效應等八個面向八項挑戰;(4)對政府推動大學資訊公開提出資訊品質、資訊內容、資訊傳遞和解讀、加強資訊公開決策過程的外界意見溝通及強化外界監督力量等五個面向之建議。並依據研究結論,對政府推動大學資訊公開提出建議。關鍵詞:資訊公開、政策工具
In the late 1980s, European and American countries adopted market governance to deal with educational funding, quality, and performance issues arising from the expansion of higher education. The viewpoint of market governance argued that only informed choices can promote universities to improve quality and performance. In addition, the network governance advocated by the new governance proposes a transparent tool and emphasizes that university information should be open to students and relevant stakeholders to facilitate performance, decision-making, understanding, and support. Furthermore, the OECD also pointed out that higher education institutions, like corporate organizations, should disclose information on governance processes and results, and provide stakeholders with informed choices. Recently, the academia and administration advocate evidence-based research and decision-making, and information disclosure is the basis and key element of evidence-based decision-making. Whether it is market governance, network governance, corporate governance, and evidence governance all emphasize the importance of information disclosure, and information disclosure is increasingly valued and incorporated into policies by higher education decision makers. The United States, the United Kingdom and other countries have established higher education information platforms based on the needs of consumers, and opened the university information to provide students to make wise and informed decision of choice for university. The Taiwan government established an institutional university evaluation in 2005 and disclosed the information of university evaluations to the public. In 2015, the"University and College Information Disclosure Platform" was established by government. The United States, the United Kingdom and other countries have established a higher education information platform based on the information needs of consumers in the higher education market This study aims to explore the reasons for the government to use information disclosure as a policy instrument to govern higher education, its effectiveness, challenges and to propose suggestions for government on using information disclosure as a higher education policy instrument. This research adopts the qualitative research orientation and uses interviewing as the method of data collection. The results of the study found that: (1) The reasons for the government to adopt information disclosure as a higher education policy instrument are the need for higher education governance and university autonomy, the demand of higher education market mechanism, university social responsibility, encouraging university competition, evidence-based policy planning, and lower cost of information tools; (2) Regarding the effectiveness of the government's disclosure of university information, it is believed that it has initial results in university performance, obtaining external support for universities, and promoting university competition, and can promote university decision-making and internal management, as well as government decision-making. As for reducing the information asymmetry between students and universities, the effectiveness is relatively limited;(3)The government faces eight challenges in information disclosure of higher education, including information accuracy, information immediacy, information stability, information relevance, information transmission and interpretation, information application, information confidentiality, and polarization effects; (4) The interview opinions suggest for the government to implement information disclosure in five-faceted aspects, including information quality, information content, information transmission and interpretation, strengthening the communication of external opinions in the decision-making process, and strengthening external supervision mechanism. Based on the research conclusions, the researcher proposes suggestions for the government to use university information disclosure as a higher education policy instrument.Keywords: information disclosure, policy instruments
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Keywords
資訊公開, 政策工具, information disclosure, policy instruments
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