威廉• 華茲華斯的身體美學: 如畫,雄渾,柔美

dc.contributor丁善雄博士zh_TW
dc.contributorDr. Ting Shan-hsiungen_US
dc.contributor.author李為堯zh_TW
dc.contributor.authorLee Wei-yaoen_US
dc.date.accessioned2019-09-03T12:56:51Z
dc.date.available2011-1-27
dc.date.available2019-09-03T12:56:51Z
dc.date.issued2010
dc.description.abstract中文摘要 美學即是一種身體論述。然而,美學論述,總離不開其他論述的影響(哲學、醫學、政治)。在經驗哲學的影響之下,身體感覺在十九世紀英國被當成是知識建構的跳板。當感覺轉化為感知並進入知識領域之際,身體的重要意義隨即被摒除在外。本文研究的出發點即是從身體的角度切入探討身體美學與眾多論述之間的關係。作為一種視見的方式,美學的前提在於主體與客體的二元關係,而這種關係主要是以身體的模式存在。不同的美學視野,皆有著不同的價值導向存於主客體身上,並且主客體的身份與角色,皆源自不同美學對身體的標準化型塑。 在這樣的前提之下,本論文旨在研究威廉•華滋華斯三大美學體系與身體之間的關係。作為本論文的理論基礎框架,德勒茲的身體機器論與傅柯的身體規訓理論的互補可視為當代身體論述中身體主動與反動兩相調和的結果。身體機器能量的流動時時刻刻受到干擾與阻斷:論述的規訓,無時不刻規範、阻斷、再生產能量的流動。華滋華斯的三大美學體系皆可視為身體機器與論述規範之間的錯綜複雜關係,其主要關係為:如畫美學鋪陳中產階級身體與下層階級身體的凌視;雄渾美學為中產階級對自我超越身體形象的投射;柔美美學做為一種能量調和的身體,同時要求其他身體的動能平衡。 能量流動的方向,為美學論述所鋪陳,同時也受到其他論述的影響:醫學論述,以科學之名描述能量於身體正常位置的流動;政治論述,以規訓之姿,規範政治正確意義下可接受的能量流動。相較於醫學與政治論述,自我性欲為自身體內部出發的能量,是一種不斷與其他論述既交融又抗衡的原始能量。華滋華斯的身體圖像即從這四大軸線下型塑;:美學、醫學、政治、性。 第二章,「痛苦政治學」,研究的重點在於如畫美學與羅伯•懷特的感統原則,華滋華斯的革命論述,以及他與安妮•華蓉的愛情。根據羅伯懷特的感統原則,當一個人看到別人痛苦時,他人的痛苦會傳導到同情者身上,引發同情者全身神經系統的反應。這種醫學論述將身體的某些部分(神經系統)階層化並予同理心科學地位。在十八世紀的「感性時期」,這種醫學論述深化了男性的主宰地位。在這個時期,女人的柔弱,因為她的痛苦而加深美感。男性的凝視,從想像女人身處痛苦之中而產生虐待的快感。在這樣女性形象的再現裡,男性/女性和心智/身體的二元對立,因此鞏固。在華滋華斯早期如畫美學階段,他將這種男性慾望的能量予以阻斷,並將它從新導向與革命論述連結。詩作中,女性流浪者的身體被視為社會不公不義的具體化。在十八世紀九0年代的後期作品中,女性流浪者的形象又與他的法國戀人華蓉的形象交互重疊。詩中時空環境的刻意錯置更突顯這層關係:以英國代替法國、以英美戰爭代替法國大革命。對於華容的罪惡感,同時伴隨著對這位法國戀人慾望展現,因此女流浪者的身體,在詩作「薩里伯利平原」同時銘刻著對政治的憤怒與虐待的愉悅。 第三章,「心靈政治學」,研究的重點在於雄渾美學與心靈物質化理論、華滋華斯政治上的轉變、以及華氏胞妹桃樂絲的錯綜關係。傳統的二元對立,諸如男/女,心智/身體,雄渾/柔美,其對於心靈非物質性的假設,以及二元論述背後所代表的政教權威,受到了當時神經科學的挑戰。這種新的身體機器建構,在當時提供了支持法國大革命及英國國內政治改革的基進派有利的科學根基。在這場對於身體本質的辯論當中,華滋華斯選擇了舊理論(即心靈本質為非物質性)作為摒棄法國大革命信仰的第一步。此外,他獨特的柔美美學也轉變成吉爾本式風格,將邊陲人物隱於山水之中,著重的是他心靈上的雄渾超越。然而,這種雄渾心靈隱藏的是身體性慾的不安蠢動。在詩作中,作為桃樂絲化身的露西總是在青春期之前即面臨死亡,這顯示出華滋華斯對已成年妹妹的不安情緒。此外,在他的自傳詩『序曲』當中,華滋華斯將死亡視為心靈成長的重要層次:一方面,死亡的威脅彰顯象徵界的力量;另一方面,對死慾的執著,代表的是冀望重返無階層身體型態的願望。死亡為回歸全然自主性身體原初愉悅的手段,即是德勒茲理論中的無器官身體。然而,華滋華斯最終選擇象徵性死亡一途,藉此洗滌他的年少清狂,並以這種方式將身體重新界線、重組身體,將其發展為獨立於身體外的超越心靈。 最後一章,「健康政治學」,將華滋華斯的柔美美學與約翰布朗的健康概念,及反革命論述相互連結。在約翰布朗醫學論述中,「刺激」被視為維持健康的主要因素。過多或過少的刺激都將引發疾病的產生。這樣的醫學論述很快與保守政治相互結合。從身體的健康到政治體的健康,一個國家的健康被認為需仰賴理性與熱情的相互調和。華滋華斯在『抒情名謠』中的前言所提倡的國家健康及與約翰布朗的醫學論述不謀而合。在個人健康的自我規範中,婚後的華滋華斯消散了華蓉的聲音,並同時清楚規範他與桃樂絲的關係。對於英國湖區的美學地圖描述,華滋華斯刻畫出一幅國家健康的圖像,在多元駁雜當中維持和諧一統。這樣的國族想像,逐漸轉變成對其它身體正常化的規訓。華滋華斯晚期詩作對邊緣人物漸漸不耐,將邊緣人物的身體視為影響國家健康的負面因素,並認為下層階級的身體應該受到規範,安於停留在社會階級的最底層。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractAbstract Aesthetics, as Terry Eagleton states, is “born as a discourse of the body,” referring to “the whole region of human perception and sensation, in contrast to the more rarefied domain of conceptual thought.” However, aesthetic discourse never escapes from the contamination of other discourses (philosophical, medical, political) that trace their origins from these “[o]ppressive and patriarchal conceptual frameworks.” Under the influence of empirical philosophy, the bodily senses in nineteenth century England were usually seen as the springboard through which knowledge was constructed. When perceptions were turned into cognition and reached the realm of religious/moral truth, the body was soon debased. The body can be seen as a Deleuzian machine which has different aspects in contemporary times: aesthetic, medical, political, and sexual. The procedure of this dissertation has been to define the three aesthetics, namely the picturesque, the sublime, and the beautiful, as three body relations, or machine connections. All three aesthetic stages of Wordsworth were at the same time interspersed with different aspects of medical discourse (the sentient principle, material mind, health), political discourse (pro-revolutionary/anti-revolutionary), and sexual relationships (Annette Vallon, Dorothy Wordsworth, Mary Hutchinson). The four axes in three stages therefore provide the different body aesthetics of Wordsworth. In the second chapter, “The Politics of Pain,” the picturesque aesthetic was seen as related with Whytt’s sentient principle, Wordsworth’s pro-revolutionary rhetoric, and his love affair with Annette Vallon. The picturesque aesthetic is a body relation that channels the flow of sympathetic energy towards the sufferers. According to Robert Whytt’s “sentient principle,” the self-contained body mobilizes nerves when one feels pain in body. When one sees others in pain, their pain will be transmitted to the viewer and generate nerve mobilization to show similar pain as a response. This medical discourse stratified certain parts of the body (the nervous system) and regulated one’s feeling to show sympathy (to oneself as well as to others). In the age of sensibility, this medical discourse was usually applied to confirm male dominance. Woman’s tenderness and frailty were said to make her more beautiful when she was in pain. The male gaze produced its sadomasochistic pleasure from seeing or imagining woman in pain. In this representation of the female image, the binary oppositions of male/female and mind/body seemed consolidated, but from contemporary medical discourse this male gaze was actually had its basis in the body’s reaction. In his early picturesque stage, Wordsworth stopped this flow of male desire and redirected it into pro-revolutionary discourse. Using the female gypsy’s body as an embodiment of social injustice, he connected the pain in the body to political discourse. The “inscription” in the body, to use the terms of Judith Butler, was meant to lay the ground for the logic of cause and effect, the pain elicitied by the torture of English tyranny. In his late eighteenth century works, the image of the female gypsy was overlapped with his internalized portrait of Annette Vallon. This displacement can be discerned from his deliberate change of the female gypsy’s background: the English for the French, the American War for the French Revolution. The guilt over his desertion of Vallon was accompanied with sexual desire for his French lover, therefore the female gypsy’s body in Salisbury Plain is inscribed with both political outrage and sadomasochistic pleasure. In the third chapter, “The Politics of Mind,” the aesthetic of the sublime is studied together with the material configuration of the mind, Wordsworth’s transition in political belief, and the disposition of Dorothy’s body. A stronghold for male dominance, the traditional binary opposition of male/female, mind/body, sublime/beautiful was challenged by developments in neuroscience, which postulated a material mind in the body rather than out of the body. This configuration of new theory reorganized not just the stratification of the machine; it posed a threat to the privileged relata in all binary oppositions. Man’s mind was no longer believed to be disembodied, and the challenge to the concept of mind soon became a challenge to the political. In the late eighteenth century, this new theory was used as political rhetoric demanding political change, as old theory upholders disparaged it as stinking of the Jacobin. In this debate, Wordsworth opted for the old theory as the first step toward discarding his faith in the French Revolution. Besides, his idiosyncratic picturesque style was turned into the Gilpinian, covering the marginal figure under the tree and asserting his mind’s sublimity. In this sublimity, Dorothy is clothed in her traditional status, the sensual animal of the body, as contrasted with Wordsworth’s mature mind. However, this mature mind is harassed by the sexual drive of the body. In the Lucy poems, the incarnation of Dorothy, Lucy, always meets death before her puberty, which shows Wordsworth’s anxiety over living so closely with a grown-up sister. Retracing his attainment of sublimity in the growth of his mind, Wordsworth emplotted scenes of death in his “spots of time” to affirm the maturity of his imagination. His ambivalence towards death is twofold: on the one hand, the threat of death is the power of the symbolic; on the other, the death drive enables him to return to the status in which the body was not stratified into a systematic organism. The deceased body, death, is one way to embrace the original pleasure of the autonomous body, the Deleuzian BWO. Wordsworth chose symbolic death to purge his “juvenile errors,” in this way deterritorializing the body and rigidly stratifying his body into an organism in which the mind is fully isolated from the body. In the final chapter “The Politics of Health,” Wordsworth’s aesthetic of beauty is explained with Brunonian health, anti-revolutionary discourse, and Wordsworth’s discipline of himself as well as of other bodies. Demanding a balanced “excitement,” John Brown set up an ambiguous measure for political conservatives to apply in their political discourse. From the health of the body to the health of the body-politic, a nation of health was said to be imbued with reason and passion properly proportioned, and Wordsworth in the “Preface” to Lyrical Ballads advocated his literary version of national health by stating the harness of powerful feeling to be tranquility. His self-discipline is in essence sexual, aiming to silence the voice of Annette Vallon and regulate his relation with Dorothy. In Vaudracour and Julia, the image of the mad lover is passed onto Vaudracour; in Home at Grasmere, the death of the swan lovers suggests his sense that his suspicious relationship with Dorothy, who, nevertheless, still sometimes disturbs his marriage relation with Mary Hutchinson. Wordsworth’s reception of government office (as Stamp Collector) and public support from Lord Lonsdale in the Westmorland Election declared publicly his change of political belief and foreshadows his official status as a national poet. The mapping of the Lake District, horizontally and vertically harmonious, pictures a nation of health, with multiplicity viewed in unity. This imaging of a nation, however, turned out to be a means of normalization. Reason and passion kept in balance was advocated as rule of thumb, but the body of the marginal figure, the “flesh and blood” to which Wordsworth once determined to give voice, was disciplined as a small cog in the economic machine. His gradual intolerance for the low-class people, as the final stroke, became distrust of their potential and opportunity to rise in the social hierarchy.en_US
dc.description.sponsorship英語學系zh_TW
dc.identifierGN0891210010
dc.identifier.urihttp://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0891210010%22.&%22.id.&
dc.identifier.urihttp://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/97870
dc.language英文
dc.subject威廉• 華茲華斯zh_TW
dc.subject身體zh_TW
dc.subject如畫zh_TW
dc.subject雄渾zh_TW
dc.subject柔美zh_TW
dc.subjectWilliam Wordsworthen_US
dc.subjectThe Bodyen_US
dc.subjectThe Picturesqueen_US
dc.subjectThe Sublimeen_US
dc.subjectThe Beautifulen_US
dc.title威廉• 華茲華斯的身體美學: 如畫,雄渾,柔美zh_TW
dc.titleWilliam Wordsworth’s Aesthetics of Body: The Picturesque, the Sublime, and the Beautifulen_US

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