支持性就業服務對智能障礙者工作適應之影響-以新北市為例

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2011

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台灣地區失業率逐年增加,身心障礙者失業率更高於一般人,其中尤以智能障礙者的就業率偏低。智能障礙者就業的主要問題是因為職場工作適應困難,而支持性就業服務為影響智能障礙者工作適應的要素之一,本研究以就業支持密集程度來預測智能障礙者的工作適應。本研究中,支持性就業服務的支持領域為「功能性一般基本認知能力」、「工作表現」、「工作態度」、「社會能力」、「健康照應」、「財務」以及「居家協助」等7個項度,以自編問卷來測量智能障礙者在職場中各領域之就業支持密集程度。工作適應是採用Hershenson 所提的工作適應理論,以工作表現、工作角色行為與工作滿意度等3個項度,做為工作適應的評量指標。 研究者運用問卷調查法,以接受台灣地區新北市辦理支持性就業服務機構之智能障礙者為主要研究對象,共回收80份問卷。以描述統計、積差相關、多元逐步回歸進行資料處理。其研究結果如下: 1.在各支持領域中,以工作態度獲得的支持密集程度最高;居家協助獲得的支持密集程度最低。接受支持性就業的智能障礙者,高達90.0%的人在整體工作適應方面獲得中度等級以上滿意肯定。 2.「工作表現支持」、「工作態度支持」、「社會能力支持」和「健康照應支持」,與工作行為角色達顯著相關。 3.「工作表現支持」、「工作態度支持」、「社會能力支持」、「健康照應支持」、「財務支持」和「居家協助支持」,與工作表現達顯著相關。 4.「工作表現支持」、「工作態度支持」、「社會能力支持」、「健康照應支持」和「居家協助支持」,與工作滿度度達顯著相關 5.社會能力支持對工作行為角色具有預測力,解釋力為13.5%。社會能力支持對工作表現具有預測力,解釋力為20.7%。工作表現支持對工作滿意度具有預測力,解釋力為29.7%。
The unemployment rate of Taiwan increases year by year, especially for persons with intellectual disabilities. The major reason of unemployment for persons with intellectual disabilities is due to their poor adjustment in work environment. The supported employment service can provide supports to help persons with intellectual disabilities adjust their work. The purpose of this research is explore the predict value of the frequency of supports provided by job coaches on work adjustment of persons with intellectual disabilities. Seven kinds of supports, including basic cognitive ability, task performance, work attitude, social integration, health care, financial management and domestic life, are usually provided by job coaches in supported employment. The work adjustment consists of work performance, work behaviors and work satisfaction. A self-designed questionnaire was developed to measure the frequency of supports provided by a job coach and work adjustments of persons with intellectual disabilities. 80 persons with intellectual disabilities who received supported employment service in New Taipei City and their supervisors participated in this study. The data were analyzed via descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis. The results were indicated as follows: 1.The supports related to work attitude were most often provided by job coaches. On the other hand, the supports about domestic life were less often provided by job coaches. 2.90% of persons with intellectual disabilities who received supported employment service in New Taipei City indicated moderate or higher degrees of satisfaction on their jobs. 3.The supports of task performance, work attitude, social intergration and health care provided by job coaches were significant correlated with work behaviors of the persons with intellectual disabilities who received supported employment services. 4.The supports of task performance, work attitude, social intergration, health care, financial management and domestic life provided by job coaches were significant correlated with work performance of the persons with intellectual disabilities who received supported employment services. 5.The supports of task performance, work attitude, social integration, health care, and domestic life provided by job coaches were significant correlated with work satisfaction of the persons with intellectual disabilities who received supported employment services. 6.The supports of social integration provided by job coaches are able to predict work behaviors and work performance of the persons with intellectual disabilities who received supported employment services; the supports of task performance provided by job coaches predict work satisfaction of the persons with intellectual disabilities who received supported employment services.

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智能障礙者, 支持性就業, 工作適應, Persons with Intellectual Disabilities, Supported employment, Work adjustment

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