C. Macaulay 的「兩性平等」人性觀與教育學說

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Department od Education, NTNU


為探索C. Macaulay(1731-1791)這位在歷史上被忽略的女性教育學者,本文首先探討了她的生平背景,發現她在當時以男性為主的社會中,並未自我囿限於傳統所賦予之女性定位,而係以豐富的學識與堅定的決心,將政治改革者與女性知識份子的角色融於一身。筆者認為,Macaulay 的人性觀與其教育思想間有密切關係,故先探討其人性觀。Macaulay 主張,理性與情感均衡及兩性平等的人性觀,認為所謂的「性別互補」觀念應是在個人之內,而非社會之中。而在教育思想方面,Macaulay 則有下列的主張:一、教育的改進是社會及政治改革的起點;二、人的知識與品格可以透過教育來培育;三、重視道德教育的作用;四、主張男女皆可適用的文學教育;五、重視教師的品格及素質等。總言之,Macaulay 的教育論述並未論及窮人與僕人的階級該如何習得其所倡導的教育,可說是其理論缺陷。惟其透過對於兩性平等人性觀的倡導,具體地將一套完整的人文主義教育主張貫注在她的教育計畫中,正體現了Macaulay 心中的美德價值及人性尊嚴。
After investigating related studies on the contexts and backgrounds of C. Macaulay (“the forgotten educational theorist”), the author finds that Macaulay strived to break through the limits imposed on women's living and working space with her perseverance and self-cultivation as well as scholarships obtained. Macaulay successfully integrated the roles of a political reformer and a woman into a female intellectual. Macaulay believed that all human beings, including women, are gifted with reason and intellect. The author therefore argues that her human nature views of gender equality are closely related to her thoughts on education. The author analyzes her human nature views, and elaborates her educational thoughts as follows: 1) The political and social reform must begin with educational reform; 2) the cultivation of knowledge and personality formation should be achieved through nurture and education; 3) the functions of moral education should be highlighted; 4) the same literary education should be advocated for both boys and girls; and 5) the character and quality of teachers should be stressed. In conclusion, the educational thoughts of Macaulay are not without deficiencies in terms of today's society. However, the author thinks that Macaulay showed her firm beliefs in human dignity and virtue as well as gender equality through her writings and educational thoughts. These might be the most important values that we can learn from Macaulay's writings today.