提升高中聽覺障礙學生的科學素養之系列研究 Research on Improving the Scientific Literacy of High School Students with Hearing Impairment

Date
2021
Authors
林佳穎
Lin, Jia-Ying
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Abstract
本研究之目的為提升高中聽覺障礙學生的科學素養,從理解高中聽障生對科學家與科學之態度出發,進而發展出一系列提升高中聽障生科學探究能力、科學閱讀能力與科學知識之研究。首先,研究一使用「畫科學家測驗」以瞭解高中聽障生持有之科學家意象。並參考先前研究發展出「現代科學家檢核表」,並將68位高中聽障生的繪圖資料進行檢核與分析。研究結果顯示,學生持有之科學家特徵最多為整潔乾淨、男科學家、中年以上與有好奇心;學生持有之科學家類型以刻板印象為最多,並發現學生畫出無關科學家的比例偏高;此外也發現女學生持有較正面的科學家意象,男學生持有較負面的科學家意象,不同年級學生持有之科學家意象無顯著差異,並經由深度晤談發現學生對科學較不感興趣,也認為自己較不適合學習科學。研究二以提升學生之科學探究能力為目的,指導3位高中聽障生參與科學展覽,以及發展出科學探究課程。本研究使用美國奧勒岡州教育部(ODE)提出之「科學探究活動評分表」分析學生之科展作品書,分析結果顯示學生之探究能力各項目分數皆高於4分,顯示出參與科學展覽可以培養學生之探究能力。本研究進一步分析學生實驗日誌與教師省思日記,發現有學生提及做實驗的過程很有趣,也有學生覺得自己更瞭解科學家的工作,未來可以多嘗試科學相關活動,顯示出參與科學展覽可以提升科學興趣、提升參與科學的自信心與對科學家持有正面態度。研究三以提升學生科學閱讀能力為目的,將斷詞與科學語言遊戲教學融入細胞分裂課程中,研究對象為7位高中聽障生,使用細胞分裂文本斷詞測驗、細胞分裂閱讀理解測驗與細胞分裂概念理解測驗為工具,以測驗教學前後的學生學習成就表現。研究結果顯示學生的斷詞以及概念理解之前測與後測成績皆達到顯著差異(P<.05),表示科學語言遊戲能有效提升學生的斷詞能力與科學概念理解。 研究四以提升學生科學知識為目的,研究者設計出擴增實境DNA課程,研究對象為9位高中聽障生,研究工具為DNA紙筆測驗和DNA繪圖測驗以及課程問卷。研究結果顯示,學生DNA紙筆測驗的前測與後測成績(P<.05)與DNA繪圖測驗前測與後測成績(P<.001)均具有顯著差異,表示擴增實境教學可以提升學生的DNA概念學習。從DNA繪圖分析可知,學生於教學後皆能畫出一種以上的DNA表徵模型,顯示出擴增實境能提升學生的模型表徵能力。本研究並發展出「DNA心智模式評量表」,將DNA心智模式分為0至6等級,用以分析學生之DNA繪圖。分析結果顯示,教學後可以提升多數學生之心智模式層級,但學生持有之DNA心智模式仍未達到科學模式。 本研究進行四個研究,透過這些研究以理解聽障學生對科學家與科學之態度,並設計出能提升學生之科學探究能力、科學閱讀能力與科學知識之課程。期望本研究能提供科學教育研究者、特殊教育研究者與教學現場老師們從事研究與教學之參考,並能拋轉引玉,使得更多研究者或教師關注聽障生的科學教育。
The purpose of this research is to improve the scientific literacy of high school students with hearing impairment, and to develop a series of studies to understand the images of scientists held by students and improve students' scientific inquiry ability, scientific reading ability, and scientific knowledge. The purpose of research 1 was to understand the images of scientists held by students with hearing impairment. Chambers developed the Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) in 1983, where students draw an image of a scientist on drawing paper for evaluation. We used the DAST to understand the images of scientists held by students with hearing impairment. We developed the Modern DAST Checklist based on previous research and analyzed the data from drawings by 68 senior high school students from a local hearing-impaired school. The results revealed that the attributes perceived of scientists held by the students with hearing impairment included neatness or cleanliness, male sex, middle-age or older, and curiosity. Female scientist sex was positively correlated with more positive impressions, and male scientist sex was positively correlated with stereotypes of scientists. The students tended to have stereotypical images of scientists, and a high percentage of students drew pictures of unrelated scientists. In addition, we discovered that female students held more positive images of scientists, and male students held more negative images of scientists. We observed no significant differences in the images of scientists held by students in different grades. Through in-depth interviews, we learned that the students were uninterested in science and believed that they were not suitable for learning science.The purpose of research 2 was to enhance students' scientific inquiry ability, and the subjects of the study were 3 high school students with hearing impairment. This study used “Scienctific Inquiry Test Scoring Guide” proposed by the Oregon Department of Education to analyze students’ science exhibition workbooks. The results revealed that participating in science exhibitions can cultivate students' inquiry ability. We further analyzed the student experiment diary and the teacher's reflection diary, and found that some students mentioned thatthe process of doing experiments was very interesting, and some students felt that they knew more about the work of scientists, and they could try more science-related activities in the future, showing that participating in science exhibitions can improve students’ interest in science, increase their confidence in participating in science, and have a positive attitude towards scientists.The purpose of research 3 was to use word segmentation and scientific language games to improve students' understanding of the concept of cell division, and the subjects of the study were 7 high school students with hearing impairment. We used the text segmentation test of cell division, the cell division reading comprehension test, and the cell division concept comprehension test to measure students' learning effectiveness. The results showed that students’ word segmentation scores and concept comprehension scores had a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores (P<.05), indicating that scientific language games can effectively improve students’ word segmentation ability and scientific concept understanding.The purpose of research 3 was to use DNA augmented reality to improve the students' concept of DNA, and the subjects of the study were 9 high school students with hearing impairment. The research tools are DNA paper-and-pencil test, DNA drawing test, and course questionnaire. The results showed that students' DNA paper-and-pencil test scores and DNA drawing test scores had a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores (P<.05 and P<.001), indicating that augmented reality teaching can improve students' DNA concept achievement. We also found that students can draw more than one DNA representation model after teaching, showing that augmented reality can improve students' model representation ability. We developed the "DNA Mental Model Scale", and used this tool to analyze students' DNA drawings. The results showed that the mental model level of most students held can be improved after teaching, but the DNA mental model held by the students has not yet reached the scientific model. This research conducted four studies to improve the scientific literacy of high school students with hearing impairment, and proposed follow-up research directions and practical applications as well as provided suggestions for future related activities.
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科學家意象, 科學素養, 科學探究, 科學閱讀, 擴增實境, 聽覺障礙, augmented reality, scientific inquiry, scientific literacy, scientific reading, scientist image, students with hearing impairment
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