文化差異對學童閱讀暨深度討論內容影響之研究 The effect of cultural differences on group discussions using Quality Talk: A study on elementary school students

Date
2021
Authors
梁鴻栩
Liang, Hong Shiu
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Abstract
良好討論教學能有效提升學生閱讀中對文本內容的分析、歸納、推測性理解,而彼此對話中發生的辯證,更能促進批判性思惟與合作能力,為現今教學培育學生理解的重要教學方法。然而不同文化背景常會影響學生中的討論表現:過於強調教師權威的教室中的學生較顧慮教學而不願參與對話;個人主義文化傾向會強調個人意見、質疑他人,過程中有機會發生呈現批判性思考;注重和諧的陰柔文化的教室則更強調合作以強化論述。目前探討文化與討論教學之相關研究多針對跨文化的外語教學情境,然而學生表達深受語文能力的影響,因而無法專注檢視文化對於閱讀理解與討論內容與的影響。 本研究以同語言同文字但因政治與歷史因素而具不同文化傾向的大陸長沙與臺灣共211位五年級小學生為研究對象,探討文化差異對學生於小組討論中閱讀理解的影響。採取Hodstede文化維度理論中的權力距離(power distance)、個人主義/集體主義(collectivism/individualism)以及陰柔作風/陽剛作風(femininity/masculinity)三個面向,以問卷調查兩地學生的文化差異,其後實施六週「深度討論」(Quality Talk)教學,採言談分析法(discourse analysis)分析學生基於文本的討論內容,最後再以實施問卷調查探討實施深度討論對文化傾向與自我效能的關係。 本研究為首篇基於文化維度理論以探討應用深度討論和文化傾向差異對於閱讀理解影響之實徵研究,研究發現深度討論能有效的引領學生真實參與討論、提問並提升學生高層次理解的表現;長沙與臺灣的學生具有不同文化傾向,而不同文化傾向的學生在閱讀時偏好不同的理解:高權力距離學生偏好歸納性統整資訊、低權力距離學生偏好分析性理解;高個人主義的學生習以批判性思考方式建構知識,集體主義傾向的學生慣以合作方式建立團體論述;陽剛作風的學生在討論中則較易發生對立辯論,進而發生批判性思考。 本研究以言談分析呈現細緻的教室文化內涵,強化文化維度理論微觀層面的論述與應用依據,提供教師以文化視角審視深度討論教學,引領不同文化傾向的學生對文本進行多元層次的思考。
Different cultural backgrounds often influence participation in discussions and interactions in the classroom, which results in different levels of comprehension and learning outcomes. This paper will present a research that was designed to investigate the influence of cultural differences in terms of discussion content in primary school students’ Quality Talk (QT). We used questionnaires following the three aspects of Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory: power distance, collectivism/Individualism, and Femininity/Masculinity. Our study investigated cultural differences among 211 fifth-grade students in ChangSha, China and Taiwan. Following the implementation of the six-week Quality Talk pedagogy, this research used discourse analysis to analyze the content of students’ discussions. The goal is to understand the impact of QT and cultural differences on reading comprehension in small group discussions. Finally we used questionnaire surveys to explore the impact of implementing QT on cultural tendencies and self-efficacy. This research is the first practical study based on the cultural dimensions theory to explore the influence of cultural tendencies on reading comprehension by applying QT. We found that students in Changsha and Taiwan have different cultural tendencies with different reading comprehension : students with high power distance preferred inductive generated information, students with low power distance preferred analytical understanding; students with high individualism are more accustomed to constructing knowledge through critical thinking, and students with collectivism preferred to build group discourse in a cooperative manner. Students with high masculinity are more prone to opposing debates and critical thinking during discussions. The research results show that cultural differences affect students’ reading comprehension. We suggest that teachers in both places, especially in Changsha, can implement QT as a teaching method to change the authoritative classroom culture to build students' ability to learn independently and think critically.
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深度討論, 閱讀理解, 文化維度理論, 權力距離, 集體主義/個人主義, 陰柔/陽剛作風, Quality Talk, Reading Comprehension, Cultural Dimension Theory, Power Distance, Collectivism/Individualism, Femininity/Masculinity
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