蒙娜麗莎符號及其變奏作品分析之研究

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2015

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文藝復興藝術家達文西將其藝術創作的才華與各領域的知識結合,立下了藝術典範。尤其他的繪畫作品〈蒙娜麗莎〉,風靡於世五百年,被視為不朽的經典傳奇。二十世紀初達達藝術家馬歇爾·杜象打破了舊有的〈蒙娜麗莎〉臨摹手法,在複製圖像上為她畫上鬍鬚,開啟蒙娜麗莎變奏曲的濫觴。現代與當代藝術家趕搭流行熱潮,運用自己的繪畫語言及創作方式,和歷史中的原型蒙娜麗莎對話。 本論文旨在分析蒙娜麗莎符號及其變奏作品的狀況。首先透過文獻探討搜集有關蒙娜麗莎變奏作品,發現〈蒙娜麗莎〉儼然形成一種符號。研究者按照藝術家創作變奏作品的數量,選擇以此符號進行創作三次(含)以上之藝術家,包括馬歇爾·杜象、安迪·沃荷、費爾南杜·波特羅與班克斯等,以其變奏系列作品為研究對象。其次,運用符號學觀念,結合作品分析法作為本研究評析之依據:藉由意符概念,為作品外在的構成作簡單描述與形式分析,推論變奏作品的「直接意指」為達文西〈蒙娜麗莎〉,然後進一步剖析作品內在之意義解釋與價值判斷,探究藝術家自身以及當時代與跨時代的「含蓄意指」。接著採深度訪談方式,向專家與藝術家請益,包括義大利理想博物館館長、義大利123ART總裁與國內高美館館長等蒙娜麗莎特展之策展人。藉其言論檢視作品分析的內容,並歸納研究。結論是,時代價值觀的差異使蒙娜麗莎形象轉變,尤其1911年的「偷竊事件」,使得〈蒙娜麗莎〉從經典變成傳奇符號。杜象“L. H. O. O. Q.”劃時代的革命行動,開啟藝術家透過蒙娜麗莎發表自由想法的時代。原作精神得以與其作品新生命共存,不只成就變奏曲的全盛期,更使蒙娜麗莎成為藝術家行銷自我的媒介。2013年蒙娜麗莎其變奏作品在臺灣展出,國內美術館與文化機構扮演著介紹國外藝術,使之與我國藝術界交流的重要角色。期盼本論文的研究結果可作為國內藝文傳播界在推動相關藝術與傳播活動時的參考。
“Mona Lisa” has swept the world for five hundred years. Renaissance’s artist Leonardo da Vinci set a perfect example of the art. In the twentieth century, Marcel Duchamp broken the old beauty distance of Mona Lisa, and opened the Variations of Mona Lisa. Artists use their own languages and ways of speaking, and starting a dialogue with prototype “Mona Lisa” in the history. First, researcher through literature review gathers all works which were the re-interpretation of “Mona Lisa”, received a finding of “Mona Lisa” becoming a semiology. Then, the researcher collect and analyze artists who transformed da Vinci’s works more than three times, includes Marcel Duchamp, Andy Warhol, Fernando Botero and Banksys’ variation works. Seconds, the basis of the analysis of this study combines Semiology and Works analyzing. Trough out the concept of “Signifier”, we make description and formal analysis for the appearance of the work, and come to a conclusion that the “Denotation” of the Variation is da Vinci’s “Mona Lisa”. We furthermore try to figure out the interpretation and judgment, analyzing the “Connotation” of the artists. And then we gain the information through having in-depth interviews with experts and artists, including the manager of Italy ideal museum, the president of Italy 123ART, the manager national Kaohsiung museum, the curators of the exhibition of Mona Lisa. Using the information and the results above, we've conclude that it is because the generation that cause the transformation the image of “Mona Lisa”. Besides, the stealing of the “Mona Lisa” made this classic art work turn into legend semiology. Moreover, the “L. H. O. O. Q.” inspired the artists to make any opinions they want on “Mona Lisa”. It not only makes the origin and the variations able to live together, but create the climax of variations. When the fashion of Mona Lisa swept all over Taiwan, we discovered that the attitude to researching between western and eastern is different. Thus, we believe that the national art museums and the cultural institutions play important roles in facing the problems of the art field. The finding of this thesis is expected to be a reference for domestic domains of art and communication on driving relevant activities.

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蒙娜麗莎, 變奏作品, 蒙娜麗莎符號, 符號學理論, 符號傳播, Mona Lisa, Mona Lisa Variation, Mona Lisa Semiology, Semiology, Simiology Communication

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