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回沖效應(washback effect)為測驗引導教學的影響,且愈具風險的測驗,將產生愈大的回沖效應。由英國劍橋大學國際考評部發佈的國際中學教育普通證書(IGCSE)中文課程,測驗對象為14至16歲的學生,在全球145個國家,超過5,500所學校實施。然而,對此具相當代表性的測驗,目前探討IGCSE中文測驗如何影響華語教與學的研究付之闕如。本研究目的在探討其測驗目標與CEFR A2級的能力描述之對應關係,以及測驗目標與測驗內容之對應情形,並根據對應結果發展以回沖效應為本的教學活動設計。本研究採內容分析法,共分兩個研究:研究一旨在探討IGCSE測驗目標與CEFR能力描述之對應,輔以Bloom認知領域教育目標分類架構分析測驗目標的層次分佈。研究二以研究一發展的架構,分析IGCSE試卷在聽說讀寫各試題與目標的對應關係。最後,本研究統整研究一、二之分析結果,應用至以回沖效應為本的教學活動設計,採ADDIE設計模式,提出為期四週的主題式教學設計方案。研究結果顯示:多有單一IGCSE目標與多個CEFR能力描述對應之情形;值得注意的是有三個口語測驗目標無法直接與CEFR溝通策略的能力描述對應之情形。此外,關於試卷分析亦發現:特定測驗目標之出現頻率高於該技能中的其他目標,可能即為IGCSE測試之重點。最後,本研究以回沖效應觀點整合分析結果,詳實舉例如何融入測驗目標之不同權重於教學,以發揮正向的回沖效應。整體研究結果預期能為相關國際學校在規劃課程或發展測驗評量等實務工作提供參考價值。
Washback effect refers to the impact of the test not only on the teaching and learning process but also on the students and teachers involved. The test content has a direct impact on the curriculum and syllabus, especially on high-stakes exams. According to the 2022-2024 syllabus of the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) Mandarin Chinese course, its curriculum is designed to help students develop up to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) A2 level. In this research, we first explore the correspondence between the test objectives of IGCSE Chinese curriculum and the CEFR A2 level of illustrative descriptors, then we analyse the corresponding relationships between the test objectives and the test items, and finally we focus on the development of a washback effect-based teaching design according to the analysis results.This research is based on content analysis method to analyse the corresponding relationships among the targets. First, we examinate the correspondence between the IGCSE test objectives and the CEFR illustrative descriptors. Then, in order to understand the correspondence between the IGCSE test objectives and the test items, we adopt Bloom taxonomies 2001 to identify the corresponding relationship between the test objectives and all test items from May 2020 examination 10 test papers. Finally, based on these findings, a four-week thematic teaching lesson plan is suggested in view of the washback effect. The lesson plan design adopts the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) model.In Study 1, it was found that every single IGCSE test objective can correspond to multiple CEFR illustrative descriptors, but they cannot correspond to CEFR"Communication Strategies" illustrative descriptors. In addition, we specially designed teaching activities aimed at developing students' "communication strategies", with expectation to help students communicate flexibly with limited language knowledge. This study integrates the corresponding results of the test objectives and the CEFR illustrative descriptors from Study 1, and design a four-week "Shopping" theme lesson plan from the perspective of the washback effect. Finally, instructional design has completed the three stages of ADDIE model, included analysis, design and development, and hope to carry out the rest of implementation and evaluation stages in future. Therefore, the actual effect needs to be verified through more practical research in future. It is hoped that the corresponding results of this research will help IGCSE Mandarin teachers in teaching design, help students achieve CEFR A2 level more comprehensively, and provide examples of"communication strategies" teaching plans that are missing in the IGCSE syllabus as a reference.



回沖效應, 認知領域教育目標, CEFR能力描述, IGCSE中文測驗, Washback effect, Bloom's taxonomy, IGCSE, CEFR